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Hot answers tagged modeling

5

Brownian motion - because it is simple, and results in intuitive closed form solutions, and it's not a terrible description of asset prices, especially when employed in high-frequency event time. Geometric - because the returns compound, and equities cannot go below zero due to the fact that they are limited liability corporations There are many, many ...

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If at first you don't have a model at all, then geometric Brownian motion is not bad. As others before me said: log-returns are normally distributed in this model. This is debatable and there are times and markets where this is not true. There is more than enough research about this. But why is a model based on Brownian motion not that bad? The reason is ...

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To provide a straight forward answer: It is not a good model. It never was, it never will be. Until we all do not come up with a better model that provides better modeling accuracy while it is equally intuitive and makes similarly simplifying assumptions the BS model with its geometric brownian motion component is here to stay. It actually does not matter ...

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You can use $\sin$ or $\cos$ to model seasonality. If all you have is a calculator it might be the most practical way.

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One can use the Karhunen–Loève expansion to approximate a trajectory of a Wiener Process, which can be used to model the evolvement of returns in time. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karhunen%E2%80%93Lo%C3%A8ve_theorem#The_Wiener_process) Though the Karhunen–Loève expansion has theoretical advantages to other variants to generate a trajectory of a Wiener ...

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To solve the expectation directly, you need to remember that a density function is not the same as the probability of the event. We have, $\frac{S_1}{S_0} \sim \ln \mathcal{N} \left(-\frac{\sigma^2}{2},\sigma\right)$, therefore, \begin{eqnarray} \mathbb{E}\left(\frac{S_1}{S_0}\right) &=& \int_{-\infty}^\infty x\, f_{\frac{S_1}{S_0}}(x)dx\\ ...

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Fourier methods use sine and cosine functions, and are used in calculating option prices, VaR, time series analysis etc. It is an alternative process for doing many things in finance. Some links Fourier Methods in trading on StackExchange and Wiki

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Trigonometric functions show up in econometric models for business cycles. For example: the average length of a cycle of an AR(2) process is $k = \frac{2 \pi}{\cos^{-1}( \phi_1/ (2 \sqrt{-\phi_2}))}$ For an AR(2) model given by $r_t = \phi_0 + \phi_1 r_{t-1} + \phi_2 r_{t-2} + a_t$ with complex roots, $\phi_1^2 + 4\phi_2 <0$

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When you do Monte Carlo simulation and would like to draw sample from the normal distribution $\mathcal{N}(\mu,\sigma^2)$, you may use Box-Muller transform and come up with formulas using $\sin$ and $\cos$.

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First of all, GNP and GDP are economic time series and they are not economic model. Secondly, you can also get these time series with different frequency, as quarterly data, avalaible on OECD website. In the case you need for lower frequency data you can get it by interpolation (as, for instance, the cubic spline interpolation); This is the Matlab tutorial ...

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These games are usually won by luck. If there is no fee for buying stocks I'd diversify, i.e. buy many different stocks, to get stable returns. After some weeks you'll see which profit you'll need to beat. Depending on the rules if options are allowed you could invest in highly leveraged derivatives and hope you win. As there is no point not to try to win I ...

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In Andersen & Piterbarg's book, LGM is referred to as "The Hagan and Woodward Parameterization" and treated separately in 11.3.2.6. The fact that this practice-oriented book devotes a couple of pages would imply LGM is of practical use in the real market. I know two large software providers adopt LGM.

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I am also not aware of any papers in this area. But having developed many such models, I can list the important steps: Decide on the target variable: usual choices are historical default data, agency ratings and expert rankings Create a sample containing the possible predictors Reduce the list with the help of some expert, e.g. exclude all the predictors ...

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Most of the papers concern CDS spreads which you will need to convert to a PD. Paper using country specific fundamentals: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2517018 This paper uses leverage: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2361872 Another one that decomposes them against peer groups: ...

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Basically, Black-Scholes is an "industry standard" formula. It is widely used by practitioners and usually augmented with extra specifications or intuition. It has a closed form solution, which is rare in option pricing models. It is also relative to simple to understand. Otherwise, you usually need to rely on Monte Carlo simulation or some other way. And ...

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This is what Moody's does to calculate default probabilities, but I don't believe they give a whole lot of detail on their exact methodology because they sell their models as software. I quickly found this which gives a brief overview: http://www.moodysanalytics.com/~/media/Brochures/Enterprise-Risk-Solutions/RiskCalc/RiskCalcPlus-Fact-Sheet.ashx Edit- ...

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Note that \begin{align*} E\bigg(\frac{S_{i+1}}{S_i}\mathbb{I}_{\frac{S_{i+1}}{S_i} < z}\bigg) &=zE\bigg(\mathbb{I}_{\frac{S_{i+1}}{S_i} < z}\bigg)-E\bigg(\Big(z-\frac{S_{i+1}}{S_i}\Big)\mathbb{I}_{\frac{S_{i+1}}{S_i} < z}\bigg) \\ &=zP\bigg(\frac{S_{i+1}}{S_i}<z\bigg)-E\bigg(\Big(z-\frac{S_{i+1}}{S_i}\Big)^+\bigg). \end{align*} Then you ...

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When I implemented a BL model, I chose to do the omega optimization using the technique Idzorek proposed here: https://corporate.morningstar.com/ib/documents/MethodologyDocuments/IBBAssociates/BlackLitterman.pdf It's a numerical procedure though.

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In practice, $\Omega$ (the covariance of the investor views) often 'inherits' the market covariance $\Sigma$. A convenient choice is $\Omega = \left( 1/c -1 \right) P \Sigma P^T$ where $c$ is a confidence parameter: the case $c \rightarrow 1$ corresponds to a strongly peaked distribution of views (the investor views dominate the market), while $c ... 1 I suggest you to start from the Altman's model, that is the basic model to implement the kind of econometric analysis you're looking for. You can find the original paper at my Dropbox public folder. After that reading, you can find a number of paper about scoring models on SSRN or Google Scholar. Moreover, I suggest you to look for all academic papers that ... 1 Bloomberg has a Default Risk model, which is similar to what you are querying. You can see a screenshot in this PDF. There you can also see the kind of variables they use. You can access it by typing DRSK at the CDS screen is Bloomberg. (If the screenshot in the PDF is not clear enough, let me know and I can post one with better resolution from Bbg) This ... 1 Did you try rmgarch package of R ? http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/rmgarch/index.html http://unstarched.net/r-examples/rmgarch/mgarch-comparison-using-the-hong-li-misspecification-test/ 1 Given that other corporate events are reasonably modelled through regression models (compare The Detection of Earnings Manipulation I would try for using an regression approach. I believe a more recent and related paper has been published but I don't seem to find it at this time. Edit: and now I did - Earnings Manipulation and Expected Returns That said, ... 1 I agree with the previous statement that this is more stats related than anything else (it's not quant finance). But it's still a great question! This sounds awfully similar to linear regression testing with multiple predictor variables; you're basically doing it in a "monte carlo" fashion :) Depending on how your data is formatted, you could enter it into ... 1 Choose the most robust (or insensitive) strategy. You are right that the best strategy might be overfit. So look at your parameter space and focus on the area where profitability, for example, changes least when you change the parameter value. Here is a 1D example: The most profitable strategy is that single point that unfortunately leaves no room for ... 1 Number one, the central limit theorem means a lot of things that may not be normal end up looking normal when lots of little 'experiments' or impacts are added up. Number 2, when dealing with finance you need a model that seems plausible. An arithmetic Brownian motion could go negative, but stock prices can't. On the other hand, it seems quite plausible ... 1 The normal distribution is very powerful distribution: By the central limit theorem, the mean of any large sample always converges to the normal distribution Considering the most simplistic Binomial Tree model, where price goes only up or down each period, it can be shown that the distribution of returns of this tree converges to Normal for infinetesimal ... 1 In terms of end-user applications, all trading desks and middle office places I know, use either their own proprietary or expensive third party sources. On the other hand there exists a c++ library called QuantLib that is well known among real world practitioners, probably because it contains several routines that are well tested and robust. Often pieces of ... 1 If$S_t = S_0 e^{(\mu-\sigma^2/2)t + \sigma W_t}$, we can compute $$\mathbb{E}^Q\left[S_T\middle\vert \mathcal{F}_0\right] = S_0 e^{r T} = \text{forward price of } S_T \text { at time } 0.$$ To show the details,$\mathbb{E}^Q\left[S_T\middle\vert \mathcal{F}_0\right] = S_0 e^{(r-\sigma^2/2) T} \mathbb{E}^Q\left[e^{\sigma W_T} \middle\vert ...

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If you mean by fat tails just fatter tails than the gaussian distribtuion, i.e. a distribution with finite variance, for instance the Student's t-distribution has fatter tails than the normal distribution. If you mean distributions with infinite variance, you have to have a look at Lévy distribution. In a first attempt you could just substitute the standard ...

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