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In three bullet points: Efficiency: the obtained prices maximize assumed utilities of different agents. In their paper "The Valuation of Option Contracts and a Test of Market Efficiency", Cohen, Black and Scholes compare the theoretical value of options to their market price. The efficiency is in this sense: can agents obtain more or less in practice than ...


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You can view the price of an option as the cost to dynamically replicate it. The more volatility, the more costs you will have trading the underlying to keep your delta equal to 0 (I'm assuming you sold the option, hence a negative gamma position). So, if at any spot, any date your local vol is above 0.194, rebalancing the portfolio will be constantly more ...


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Very simply, Ross' framework assumes a great deal to extract the true pricing kernel. Time homogeneity, additively separable state dependent utility, (discrete time Markovian structure - though these have been relaxed.) In particular, there are two schools of criticism, one is that time homogeneity makes little sense in the real market. In fact, the Recovery ...


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Think of moving volatility in the other direction. As volatility approaches zero, any call strike strictly smaller than the ATM strike, $K<K_{ATM}$, will have zero probability of ending in the money, and the corresponding option value will be zero. An infinitesimally small change in stock price will not move $K$ past $K_{ATM}$, so the option value ...


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CRR is just a numerical approximation to Black--Scholes. Its main use is in getting American option price. There is no real difference other than slight inaccuracy when using it for Europeans. So no it wouldn't do what you ask. Your questions are philosophical. What is the purpose of the model? if you estimate the volatility from a time series then you can ...


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Victor123, let's start from $\Delta$. This is the expected change in the price of an option if the underlying asset moves by a currency unit, say 1 USD. For the case of a call option, the Delta varies between 0 and 1. Everything else been equal, the Delta of OTM calls will approach to 0 as the price moves out of the target barrier. Conversely for the case ...


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Dupire model is just one way of generating a local volatility surface from an implied volatility surface. There are many other ways to generate a local volatility surface. One critical aspect of Dupire model is that the input implied volatility (IV) surface should be arbitrage free. If not, you will negative instantaneous variance when generating the local ...


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No, if you are referring to the famous Dupire Model (there are others), then they are the same. It is usually referred to as the Local Volatility Model and the Dupire Equation. I would disentagle those with the concept of Local Volatility, which is model independent and a fairly deep result.


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In the Merton jump diffusion model, the stock price process consists of a continuous part and a discrete part (this one represents the jumps). While deriving the PDE for the riskless portfolio and imposing the riskless evolution, the discrete part can't be instantaneously hedged. In fact, you can assume that the effects of jumps can be nullified on average, ...


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I am guessing that the argument is as follows. They certainly have the same value at time t since they are both worth $S_t$ then. If they have the same value at $t$ they should have the same value at time $0.$ So if we are pricing by expectation our measure has to give the same discounted expectation price to both portfolios. So we must have $$ e^{-rT} ...


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There are two approaches. Price call and put options with various strikes. Plot their BS implied volatilities. Find the slope of the graph. Price a call and digital call with the requisite strike. Compute the implied volatility of the call. Use the fact that $ DC(model) = DC(BS) - skew \times callvega,$ to solve for the skew. (See eg Section 7.7 of my ...


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LSM is very fiddly. The most important things in my view are 1) don't believe anyone who says that the choice of basis functions doesn't matter. 2) implement an upper bounder, eg Andersen--Broadie (2003) or Joshi-Tang (2014) so you can tell if your prices are good 3) do two passes, one to build the strategy, one to price, if they give very different ...


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If I am not mistaken, the Feynman-Kac formula is related to the Kolmogorov's backward equation, so I would expect it to be available only for Markov processes. Diffusions are usually of Markovian type, in contrast to general Ito processes or more to say, general semimartinagales. Intuitively, the PDE/PIDE/... will describe the dynamics of ...



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