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3

I'm guessing ${W_t^r}$ and ${W_t}$ correspond to real and nominal endowment at time $t$, respectively, and that ${P_t^g}$ is the price level at time $t$. In that case, $W_t^r \equiv W_t/P_t^g$ follows, and if endowment grows at a nominal interest rate $R_t$, then $W_t = W_{t-1}(1+R_t)$. We can write $W_{t-1}=(W_{t-1}^rP_{t-1}^g)$, so by substitution ...

2

No, it would be $$(RI_{t}-RI_{t-1})/RI_{t-1}$$

1

I think there are 2 approaches being a bit mixed up here. You can analyze the option market by looking at implied volatilities and apply Black-Scholes (BS), thus assuming that log-returns follow a Gaussian distribution. Implied volatilies are the parameters that bring together BS and market prices. Then you will observe a pattern of implied volatilies for ...

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