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this is probably the most asked question in quantitative finance... There are many answers. One nice example to consider is what if the calls were struck at zero. The call then pays the stock price at time $T$ and so it's value today must the stock price today since we can replicate by holding one unit of stock. This will be true regardless of the drift of ...


You may bet on stock 1 by buying a call option on stock 1, and drive up the option price. But some arbitrageurs will immediately short the option and hedge with stock 1, pocketing the profit. These arbitrages will force the call option back to normal. Discrete or continuous-time, the logic is the same.


Your posting has an error, that is, the identity should be \begin{align*} -P(0, T) \mathbb{P}(S_T > K) = \frac{\partial C}{\partial K}. \end{align*} The derivation below is based on this assumption. We denote by $f(x)$ the density function for $S_T$. Then \begin{align*} \mathbb{P}(S_T > K) = \int_K^{\infty} f(x) dx, \end{align*} and \begin{align*} C(K, ...


As always I recommend reading Rennie and Baxter for an introduction to option pricing that's not too technical and gives intuition about how it all works.

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