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The rating downgrade/upgrade effect is definitely more extreme during financial crisis, because of several effects (among all, flight-to quality, flight-to-liquidity and news effects itself), as shown by: Arezki, Rabah, Bertrand Candelon, and Amadou Nicolas Racine Sy. "Sovereign rating news and financial markets spillovers: Evidence from the European ...


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So you are asking whether the function Box.test requires standardized or raw residuals as input? I do not know this function but as you mention that the results change based on your input it should be such that the function requires standardized values. In case a standardization is implemented directly the output should not differ because you either plug-in ...


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There are different methodologies to detect a change in the market efficiency, both in the market and firm-specific cases. In the FIRM-SPECIFIC case, the most common procedure is the event study methodology; you can find how to construct an event-study case explained in Kothari & Warner (2006), who collected all the event study methodology implemented ...



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