# Tag Info

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You will find elaborate answers to your question in this excellent new book: Quantitative Value: A Practitioner’s Guide to Automating Intelligent Investment and Eliminating Behavioral Errors by Gray & Carlisle You can find a good summary over at CXO Advisory Group: A Few Notes on Quantitative Value

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According to this reference there are indeed several types of P/E-Ratios (trailing P/E that is based on previous earnings and forward P/E which is based on projected earnings) Also several books calculate the P/E according to the following formula $P/E-Ratio = \frac{Average Common Stock Price}{Net Income Per Share}$ (Confer source1, source2 and source3) ...

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We actually managed to come up with the answer to this question ourselves but wanted to share the answer since it might be relevant to others as well. The calculation depends on what method is used to calculate the cost. There is the FIFO, LIFO and the average cost method, see: http://www.accounting-basics-for-students.com/fifo-method.html If FIFO or LIFO ...

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If you don’t have any market quotes, one possible way to assess the credit risk of a company is to use its financial statement information in order to infer the corporate rating that credit agencies might have assigned to such company. For instance, in this paper you can find the general criteria that S&P use to derive the credit rating of a company ...

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