I read in a book that the distance to default of a company is "2.978". Can anyone please tell me what is the unit implied behind this measure? Are they "years" for instance?


1 Answer 1


Distance to default $DD$ should be measured in standard deviations. You convert this into a probability $p_{default}$ using the normal CDF: $p_{default} = N(-DD)$. So if $DD = 2.978$ then the firm is about 3 standard deviations from default and has a $\frac{1 - 0.997}{2} = 0.0015 = 0.15 \%$ chance of defaulting in the next period. I divided by two because this is a single-tailed test.

  • $\begingroup$ Thanks for your reply RichardH. Then what is the unit for the "next period"? $\endgroup$
    – balteo
    Jun 6, 2011 at 20:00
  • $\begingroup$ @balteo -- I don't know your data source, but I expect that it should be on an annual basis, because this is how firms report debt liabilities (i.e., they report debt liabilities due in the next year). $\endgroup$ Jun 6, 2011 at 21:28
  • $\begingroup$ Richard Herron, From your above explanation, one can extract DD if he has Probability default(PD). I am kind of stuck in such issues. I have the data of PD downloaded from bloomberg but i need DD also. Can you please explain it bit more? Lets say, Bank A has the probablity default 0.0917%? how can i get DD from PD? $\endgroup$
    – KHNS
    Jun 24, 2017 at 17:53

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