I am studying the European Sovereign Debt crisis and I have the following questions which I am struggling to find examples for:

1) I have heard that during the sovereign debt crisis, European regulators and policymakers have often let small banks that are not systemically important fail (i.e., default). What are some examples of this? Which European small banks (in terms of asset size and liabilities) have been allowed to fail?

2) I have also heard that organizations like the EU and IMF have worked hard to bail out systemically important "large" banks, i.e., banks that are 'too-big-to-fail'. This is because a failure of a large systemically important bank could cause contagion into the entire European banking system. Again, what are some examples of this? Which banks are "too-big-to-fail"? And which "too-big-to-fail" banks have been bailed out? And what organization bailed it out? One example I found is here, where Dexia SA (one of the largest banks in Belgium) was bailed out. What about other examples?

3) Lastly, I read that the main policy implementations for handling "too-big" banks was to shrink their size and/or break them up into smaller entities, e.g., here and here. What are examples of this? Which regulators/policymakers and which large banks were downsized and/or broken up?


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