I have come across two ways of calculating Tracking Error (TE) but i'm not sure if they are essentially the same.
The first way is to calculate the standard deviation of the difference between a fund's returns and a benchmark as shown here.
The second method is to run a regression and calculate the standard deviation of the error terms and shown here in section 8.
Many of the academic papers I have read use the latter. My question is, do these 2 methods yield the same answer?