Consider if a bank account had a -12% yearly interest rate, and an account was currently overdrawn to a balance of -$100.
What would the bank do to the -$100 balance after one month's -1% is applied?
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If you owe money to the bank, you will not receive a compensation.
It might not exactly correspond to what you want, but here is my understanding.
If we refer to the origin of the rates formation, you see two rates.
this one cannot be negative, ECB will not pay a bank which is out of cash.
this one can be negative, it means that if a bank A doesnot want to invest in any other assets and prefer keeps money on their central bank account,
sometimes bank A will prefer to pay a fee rather than invest in some liquidity because of cash needs.
if you have $-100$€ on your bank A account, then the bank A is missing $100$€ on its balance sheet and must borrow money from the central bank, it will apply you the marginal lending rate (+fee),
of course, you can pretend that you offer a service to the bank by reducing its extra cash that bank must deposit (at a cost) to the central bank, but remember that bank A would prefer to invest extracash in other assets.
My understanding is that negative rates are a way to penalize cash not invested in assets.