# R: optimize timeseries to minimize “integral”

What I am looking to do is:

for a given time-series $P_t$ (which will be constructed from different timeseries itself):

$P_t$ = $\beta_1$$I_t^1+\beta_2$$I_t^2$+$\beta_3$$I_t^3 \qquad (I_t^i are i number of time-series) I want to min$$\sum_t^T|$$P_t$-$\bar{P}$| where $\bar{P}$ = 1 (centered around 1)

esentially choosing the $\beta$s such that |$P_t$-$\bar{P}$| is minimized over [ t,T ].

• Could you show us what you have tried so far and where the exact problem is? – vonjd May 31 '18 at 16:58
• Are you sure you want to minimise the differences? Or rather the absolute differences? – Enrico Schumann Jun 1 '18 at 11:48
• :+1: thanks Enrico! that is exactly what I meant – MaxyD Jun 1 '18 at 14:35
• Never answer an "or-question" with "yes" ;-) – vonjd Jun 7 '18 at 9:06
• Vonjd, I am sorry you couldn’t gather from context that I indeed meant to minimize the absolute differences (also changed it in the initial question) – MaxyD Jun 10 '18 at 9:24

A simple, though somewhat inflexible, way would be to regress $\bar{P}$ on the $I$ series only (no constant). This will minimise squared differences instead of absolute ones, though.

nobs <- 250  ## length of series
ns <- 3      ## number of I series

P <- c(1, cumprod(1 + rnorm(nobs, sd = 0.01)))
M <- sum(range(P))/2  ## midpoint of range
I <- array(rnorm((nobs)*ns, sd = 0.01),
dim = c(nobs, ns))
I <- apply(I, 2, function(x) cumprod(1+x))
I <- rbind(1, I)

plot(P, ylim = range(P, I), type = "l",
col = "darkgreen", lwd = 2)
abline(h = M)
for (i in 1:ns)
lines(I[,i], col = grey(0.7))

## regression
res1 <- lm(rep(M, nrow(I)) ~ -1 + I)
lines(I %*% coef(res1),
col = "blue", lwd = 2,
type = "l")


An alternative way would be to use a generic solver. Here is an example with Differential Evolution, as implemented in the R package NMOF, which I maintain.

## Differential Evolution
library("NMOF")
diff_mean <- function(b, M, I)
sum(abs(M - I %*% b))

res2 <- DEopt(diff_mean,
list(min = rep(-1, ns),
max = rep(1, ns)),
M = M, I = I)

lines(I %*% res2$xbest, col = "red", lwd = 2)  The advantage of such a solver is that it is much more flexible: you may use another function to measure the similarity of the series, or add constraints. • Didn't know the package, thank you for pointing it out. – vonjd Jun 7 '18 at 9:05 • I just changed the question slightly... It should be enough to make$\bar{P}$a constant. However, I am unsure how to apply DEopt for a dataframe (of multiple vectors) in order to extract my betas. – MaxyD Jun 11 '18 at 15:32 • It is unfortunate that you changed your question, as now my code example does not match it any more. But anyway: what do you mean by multiple vectors? In the example, I is already a matrix; simply overwrite M with your constant series. – Enrico Schumann Jun 12 '18 at 9:43 • I did get the DEopt working now. However I am getting more than one solution for xbest across multiple runs even though I do think there should be one definitive solution. I already did change the min&max values. – MaxyD Jun 14 '18 at 11:33 • DE is a stochastic method, so its solutions are, in a sense, random. However, with more iterations, this randomness should decrease and eventually disappear. So, try with an increased number of steps (nG in DEopt). See also the discussion in section 3 of ssrn.com/abstract=1140655 – Enrico Schumann Jun 15 '18 at 9:49 I is a t x i matrix. Each vector in I is weighted by a beta each such that diff_mean is minimized. I will center the process around 1 (M=1) and square the differences to "punish" higher deviations (and prevent netting of errors) from M:  #Optimization library("NMOF") ns=dim(df) M=1 diff_mean <- function(b, M, df) sum((10000*(M-(df%*%b)))^2) res <- DEopt(diff_mean, list(nG = 100000, min = rep(-100, ns), max = rep(100, ns)), M = M, df = df) output=res$xbest
solution=output/output


Bingo!