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Questions tagged [binomial-tree]

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Trinomial tree VBA code [closed]

I am studying binomial trees and I'm implementing them in VBA to see their convergence to the BS model. I searched 3-4 hours in the web; the only good site I know is Volopta. Very simply question by ...
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0answers
250 views

Building implied binomial tree with American input options

i want to build an implied volatility binomial tree with American input options, so the setup is the following: 1) We know the market Price P of the American Put $P_{am}(t_i,K)$, where $t_i$ is the ...
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1answer
104 views

Explanation on the application of CLT in bionomial tree model

We have a stock price binomial tree model of $n$ steps, with step length $\Delta t=T/n$, stock price volatility $\sigma$ s.t. $u_n=e^{\sigma\Delta t}$ and $d_n=1/u_n$, and the risk neutral probability ...
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1answer
386 views

Binomial Model for options pricing with continuous compounding

I'm reading about Binomial Model on "Arbitrage Theory in Continuous Time" by Tomas Bjork. I found an important result which allow us to state that in a one period model $q_u$ and $q_d$ are actually ...
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1answer
387 views

Difference in formulas for u & d in Binomial trees

For a binomial tree, everywhere in Hull and other literature, we have found the formulas for $$u = \exp(\sigma \sqrt{h})$$ but for binomial trees based on forward prices, we get a different formula ...
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1answer
193 views

Clarification on the Black-Derman-Toy model regarding measuring time and notation

I'm self-studying BDT and I'm having some difficulty with what is meant by the "short-rate volatility parameter for the first year" and "the short-rate volatility parameter for the second year," as in ...
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1answer
441 views

How to derive the formula for risk-neutral probability for a Standard Binomial Tree (Forward Tree)

Consider a standard binomial tree. Let $u = e^{(r - \delta)h + \sigma\sqrt{h}}$ and $d = e^{(r - \delta)h - \sigma\sqrt{h}},$ where $\delta$ is the continuously compounded dividend yield, $h$ is the ...
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0answers
344 views

binomial trees and finite differences

I was reading Tavella Randall book and their explanation why binomial trees are a particular example of finite differences. I started having additional questions. So, they way they do that is saying ...
2
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1answer
164 views

Calculating the annual return on an option using a replicating porfolio

I am self-studying and encountered the following problem: My idea was to calculate the price of the put using a replicating portfolio, then use the formula: $$Pe^{\gamma h} = S\Delta e^{\alpha h} + \...
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3answers
663 views

Pricing of convertible bonds

I'm trying to evaluate a convertible bond using the structural approach : the price of convertible bond is an option (call) on the firm value. We suppose that the firm value is equal to the sum of the ...
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1answer
327 views

Is Asian option in binomial asset pricing model a martingale?

Since it does not have a closed form solution for the price, it's unlikely to be a martingale. However, on the other hand, if we represent the price as a function of the current stock price and the ...
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1answer
85 views

Reference for option pricing, binomial multi-period model using martingales and conditional expectations

The title basically says it all. I am looking for a reference text on the pricing of options in a binomial multi-period model. It should be mathemathically rigorous using martingales and conditional ...
2
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1answer
417 views

Deriving $u$ and $d$ coefficients using binomial tree approach

From Hull's book when deriving coefficients of up and down movements, $u$ and $d$, of a stock price using binomial tree approach, at some point we get the following equation: $$e^{\mu\Delta t}(u+d) - ...
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2answers
106 views

Counting random paths

Assume the path of a certain stock can be modeled using a binomial tree. The initial price of the stock at time $t=0$ is 1024. The upstage factor of the stock price is $x=1.25$ and downstage factor of ...
2
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1answer
3k views

Option pricing: Risk neutral probability calculation

Let $u=1.3$ $d=0.9$ $r=.05$ $S(0)=50, X = \text{strike} = 60$. Assume binomial model Why isn't the risk neutral probability found by solving the following for $p$: $$E[S(T)]=p65+(1-p)45=S(0)(1+r)^T=...
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3answers
187 views

What does a negative stock amount mean in a single-period, binomial market model?

Consider a single-period, binomial market model with a $r > 0$ interest rate (in USD per period) and a portfolio $(x, y)$ consisting of two assets: a savings/lendings account and a stock, both ...
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1answer
336 views

Put-on-call option confusion

So the question asks: Given a 3-steps Binomial Tree model with $S(0) = 50$, $U = 20%,D = 􀀀20%$, and $R = 5%$. A European call option has the strike price $X = 40$ and maturity time $T = 3$. Also, a ...
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1answer
6k views

Replication strategy of European call option

So the question asks: L et $S(0) = 120$ dollars, $u = 0.2$, $d = −0.1$ and $r = 0.1$. Consider a call option with strike price $X = 120$ dollars and exercise time $T = 2$. Find the option price and ...
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2answers
613 views

Two-period binomial model with dividends

Consider a two-period binomial model for a risky asset with each period equal to a year and take $S_0 = 1$, $u = 1.15$ and $l = 0.95$. The interest rate is $R = .05$. a.) If the asset pays 10% of its ...
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1answer
845 views

How to price and find a replicating portfolio for a call spreads using a two-period binomial model?

Consider a two-period binomial model for a risky asset with each period equal to a year and take $S_0 = 1$, $u = 1.03$ and $l = 0.98$. a.) If the interest rate for both periods is $R = .01$, find the ...
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0answers
105 views

Quantlib binomial tree

I was trying to price options with the extendedBinomialTree class of quantlib. I actually tried at some point to modify this class in order to optimize it. Normally the drift and diffusion of the ...
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1answer
134 views

Is there an error in this problem on pricing an asset using the true probability of an up move?

I'm self-studying for an actuarial exam and I encountered the following problem: The true probability of an up move, $p$, must satisfy: $$p = \frac{e^{{(\alpha - \delta})h} - d}{u - d},$$ where $\...
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1answer
102 views

Calculating the price of a call and put using multinomial trees and risk-neutral probabilities

I am self-studying for an actuarial exam and I encountered this example. The books shows one method of solving using a replicating portfolio, and then shows this solution involving risk-neutral ...
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1answer
45 views

binomial - parameters at which american option hits early exercise possibility

I am looking for a set of parameters (d,u,r,So,K, N=?) for pricing an american call using binomial where the call hits the early exercise possibility. Do you have any exemplary set?
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6answers
2k views

Why don't real-world probabilities affect the price of a call in a 1-step binomial model?

I was a bit hesitant to post this question because it seems so basic...but I wasn't able to figure it out on my own. Say we setup a one-step binomial tree with $S_0=100$, $S_u=110$ and $S_d=90$, ...
3
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3answers
179 views

How would I exploit arbitrage if risk-neutral pricing doesn't hold? (Option Pricing)

We are just learning about binomial option pricing, and how the up-factor and the down-factor must match the risk-neutral price. p * u + (1 - p) * d = continuous risk free rate compounded CRR ...
2
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0answers
122 views

Efficient construction of binomial tree

The goal is to build a $n$ step binomial tree knowing the end nodal probabibilities $p_1, \dots, p_m$, which correspond to the time $T$ states $S_1, \dots, S_m$. We assume that all paths ending in the ...
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1answer
185 views

Binomial tree notation

Can someone clarify for me the notation of the nodes in a binomial tree with more than 1 step? Is this notation correct?
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2answers
599 views

Does the Binomial Pricing Model require a no-arbitrage assumption?

In a binomial option model, if we take the uptick as 6%, downtick as 5% (assume equally probable), and RFR of 6% (continuous compounding), then we have a violation of $0 < d < 1 + r < u$. ...
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4answers
575 views

pricing american calls on non dividend paying stocks

It is never optimal to exercise an american call option early if it is written on a stock that doesn't pay dividends, yet when pricing such an option, using a binomial model, we check whether or not ...
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0answers
138 views

negative transition probability in trinomial trees

I was pricing a option with big dividend in the underlying. However, I got negative transition probability in a trinomial tree. Will it cause arbitrage? Does anyone have reference paper or book ...
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0answers
61 views

Jabbour-Kramin-Young ABMC Binomial Parameterization

The JKY ABMC Model (taken from Jabbour, et al. 2001) parameterizes the binomial model (in a risk-neutral world) such that, $u = e^{r\Delta t} + e^{r\Delta t}\sqrt{e^{\sigma^2\Delta t} - 1}$ $d = e^{...
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1answer
4k views

Ho-Lee Model; Please explain

I'm having trouble with the Ho-Lee model for short rates and differentiating between how to find the values for the free parameter λ versus using the model to predict future rates. The Ho-Lee model ...
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0answers
3k views

Calculating Greeks using BinomialTree in Matlab [closed]

section 1. Calculating sensitivity of the price of derivatives American or European option using binomial tree model section 2. Calculating first order greeks the code compiles till this point ...
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2answers
179 views

Binomial representation of stochastic processes

It is common knowledge that a random walk can be represented in the form of a binomial process. Is it possible to represent any generic stochastic process (including non-linear) of the form $dX=adt+...
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1answer
372 views

Binomial pricing model: When the Cox-Ross-Rubinstein assumption is not arbitrage-free

I understand that in an arbitrage-free Binomial model, we assume that $S_{t+1} = S_t \cdot u$ in the event of an up-jump and $S_{t+1} = S_t \cdot d$ in the event of a down-jump. We call $u$ and $d$ ...
2
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2answers
3k views

Estimate simple option price without a calculator

I have been to two different interviews for jobs related to option trading, and both time I have been asked a question, which is pretty basic, and still I could not answer it. If you have an European ...
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1answer
3k views

Binomial tree vs trinomial tree in pricing options

Very new to pricing models. Is there a general guideline when to use binomial tree and when trinomial tree is preferred? As far as I know, unlike binomial tree, trinomial tree only gives a range ...
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1answer
82 views

Replication of the portfolio in single step binomial model

I would be grateful if anyone would comment how to construct this: Assume $S_{i}^k$ is a stock price at time level $i$ and at price level $k$. Assume option is written on $S$ with a a payoff $f_{T}^{...
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2answers
258 views

Time 0 value of an American Put in Cox-Ross-Rubinstein model

This is a question from a problem sheet which I have handed in and have solutions for. The only examples of this in class I have seen are examples where the interest rate is 0. "Consider a Cox-Ross-...
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2answers
6k views

How to price an option on a dividend-paying stock using the binomial model?

This is actually an exercise from a course. But I don't completely understand the wording of the question. A stock is now trading at 100 dollars. Its price over the next 6 months evolves as a two ...
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2answers
649 views

Is it fair to assume $(ud=1)$ in the binomial tree option pricing model?

I have discussion with my colleague on why a general assumption $$ud=1$$ in binomial tree option pricing model would be necessary? I take it a simplification of the problem, otherwise, there will be ...
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1answer
3k views

How to draw a binomial option tree graph?

I am writing a paper and need to create a png or jpeg file for binomial option price tree. In the past I would have used the tikZ package in LaTeX, but that won't work in this case. So I want a ...
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1answer
299 views

Intuition behind American Option pricing

The price of an American option is given by $$V_n = \max\left(G_n,\frac{pV_{n +1}H^d + qV_{n + 1}H^u}{1 + r}\right)$$ where p, q are the risk neutral probabilities. I have two questions: How can ...
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3answers
2k views

Arbitrage free implies complete market?

In Tomas Björk's Arbitrage Theory in Continuous Time (or here), $\exists$ this proposition It seems that to show that the model is complete, we must show that the claims are reachable. That is, we ...
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2answers
181 views

Is stock price priced in the uncertainty?

Consider a one step binomial tree model for stock price. The classical setup is as below: At time $t=0$, the stock price is $S_0$. At time $t=1$, the stock has probability $p$ to jump up to price $...
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2answers
170 views

Standard Deviation as listed in Rebonato's Volatility and Correlation: Binomial Replication 2.3.4 Worked-Out Example

I am reading Rebonato's Volatility and Correlation (2nd Edition) and I think it's a great book. I'm having difficulty trying to derive a formula he used that he described as the expression for ...
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1answer
652 views

A question about pricing convertible bond with two different underlying assets

I have a question regarding the pricing of convertible bond. If I value the convertible bond with two different underlying assets, how can I incorporate two volatility and the correlation in the ...
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2answers
1k views

How can I show that $u=e^{\sigma\sqrt{\Delta t}}$ in the binomial option pricing model

Given that $e^{r\Delta t}(u+d)-ud-e^{2r\Delta t} = \sigma^2\Delta t$ I would like to show that $u=e^{\sigma\sqrt{\Delta t}}$ I know I must somehow use Taylor's approximation $e^x = 1 + x + \frac{...
3
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1answer
257 views

Minimum Variance Hedge Ratio in Binomial Framework

In order to find the minimum variance hedge ratio when holding a portfolio of vanilla call options and hedging with stock, you can do an OLS regression. In a binomial model framework, given ...