Questions tagged [black-scholes]

Black-Scholes is a mathematical model used for pricing options.

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24 views

Arbitrage free in a Black-Scholes/Poisson model

I am trying to solve the following exercise from Bjork's Arbitrage Theory in Continuous Time: Consider a model for the stock market where the short rate of interest $r$ is a deterministic ...
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29 views

Option pricing with definite integral

I would like to consider a slight generalisation of this question, which I recall here: At date of maturity $T_2$ the holder of a financial contract will obtain the amount: $$ \frac{1}{T_2−T_1}\...
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Black-Scholes-Merton formula and option pricing

If the distribution is skewed to the right,Black-Scholes overprices out-of-the-money puts and in-the-money calls. It underprices in-the-money puts and out-of-the-money calls. How? Stock price log-...
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1answer
62 views

Why and how is Implied volatility directly related to stock price but inversely related to strike price?

I know that in equity markets there is a volatility smirk which results in higher IV for lower strike price options because of crashophobia and leverage related factors but I can't wrap my head around ...
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How do you explain the volatility smile in the Black-Scholes framework?

Does anyone have an explanation for the currently naturally forming volatility smile (and the variations) in the market?
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Arbirtage free price process question in Bjork's Arbitrage Theory in Continuous Time

I am currently working through questions in Bjork's Arbitrage Theory in Continuous Time. However, I am unable to solve the following question, 7.2 in the book. A solution would be greatly appreciated. ...
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1answer
57 views

Exercise on arbitrage-free process

Consider the following problem, from Bjork's Arbitrage Theory in Continuous Time: Consider the standard Black-Scholes model. Derive the arbitrage free price process for the $T$-claim $\mathcal{X}$ ...
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2answers
190 views

Why does expected price of OTM option not equal to BS price?

If I assume that stock returns follow normal distribution with drift = 0% and S.D. = 10%. In the long, if I keep investing in this stock for a year with the same capital every year for a consecutive ...
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1answer
55 views

In literature, is IV constantly adjusted during option delta hedging?

In a lot of literature, they like to compare the performance of buying an option, and then delta hedging either at that options implied volatility (IV) or the true future volatility. This is under ...
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1answer
72 views

When is a numerical solution the only way to obtain a solution to BS?

I am only now reading into Mathematical Finance, I understand the derivation of the BS equation with vanilla European options. On the next page of my book it starts to delve into obtaining exact ...
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1answer
65 views

Option pricing with negative short-term interest rates

In countries with negative short-term risk-free interest rates, do you just use a negative "r" in the Black-Scholes formula, or do adjustments need to be made?
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In BS option pricing, why is the drift rate of GBM equal to risk free rate for all stocks in risk neutral?

Can the drift rate μ depend on specific stock ? If not what is the rationale for the discounted Stock price to be a martingale ? \begin{align} & dS_t/S_t = \mu dt + \sigma dW_t \end{align} ...
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Kurtosis in asset logarithmic returns

Assets such as stocks usually display kurtosis in their logarithmic returns. However, their logarithmic returns in a time interval $n$ are the sum of smaller logarithmic returns in $1/n$ time ...
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1answer
39 views

How is $\phi_t = \Delta_t$ in the martingale approach to pricing under Black-Scholes?

In the martingale approach to derivative pricing, we show that there exists a replicating strategy $(\phi_t, \psi_t)$ which mimics the derivative payoff. My textbook then goes on to state that it is ...
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1answer
59 views

Proof that we can price any derivative as the discounted value of its expected return under the risk neutral measure

I am reading a paper which tries to convey the intuition behind the Black-Scholes pricing formula. In that paper, the author states the following two things without proof, and I would like to know why ...
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1answer
60 views

Hedging an option on a non-traded asset in BS world

I have given the following task given. Suppose you are in a Black-Scholes World where you have the standard assets $$ dS_t = \mu S_t dt + \sigma S_t dW_t $$ $$ dB_t = r B_t dt $$ and now you also ...
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How to explain the asymmetry of vanilla Volga?

I've plotted the charts of Volga of Vanilla Call/Put using finite difference method, and found they are the same, and an asymmetrical shape of observed for both. Any intuitive way to explain the ...
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OTC equity option under foreign currency CSA

What adjustment do I need to make to the Black-Scholes equation when the CSA of an OTC equity option is in a different currency than the underlying in order to get the correct price? For instance, ...
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Dimension reduction for worst of basket on $min(S_1, S_2)$

Suppose we want to price an exotic equity which is a function of $min(S_1, S_2)$. To do this, I'm trying to compute an implied volatility surface for $min(S_1, S_2)$ and then price the option using ...
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Classic dynamic delta-gamma hedging in Python

I am trying to run a delta-gamma hedge for a Black-Scholes model in Python.The Euler disceretizatioin of the paths is the simplest possible. I wrote the code below but the PnL looks undesirable and ...
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1answer
274 views

Exercise Probabilities Vanilla Cap/Foor

When looking at the discounted pay-off formulas of a vanilla caplet and a vanilla floorlet $\frac{\Delta\tau}{1+r_k\Delta\tau}\max(r_k-r_{cap},0)$ $\frac{\Delta\tau}{1+r_k\Delta\tau}\max(r_{floor}-...
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1answer
74 views

Black Sholes option pricing with all but Delta [closed]

I'm trying to setup a little option pricing model in excel. I have all the information for the inputs (interest rate, IVs for different deltas, time to expiry, strike price, underlying price) but what ...
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5answers
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A simple formula for calculating implied volatility?

We all know if you back out of the Black Scholes option pricing model you can derive what the option is "implying" about the underlyings future expected volatility. Is there a simple, closed form, ...
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2answers
252 views

Expected value of delta-hedged portfolio

Consider portfolio in black-scholes world $\Pi = \Delta S - V$, where $S$ is the stock price and V is the price of the option. I have read that if we set $\Delta = \frac{\partial V}{\partial S} $ ...
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How to derive Black's formula for the valuation of an option on a future?

I've got a question about 1976 Black Model and Bachelier model. I know that a geometric brownian motion in the P measure $dS_{t}=\mu S_{t}dt+\sigma S_{t} dW_{t}^{P}$ for a stock price $S_{t}$ leads (...
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1answer
53 views

How can the BS riskless hedge break down when volatility changes, if a random walk can produce any price history?

Supposedly, a Black-Scholes riskless hedge will break down if the volatility is non-constant. However, a random walk with any sigma could produce any price history with some non-zero probability. If ...
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2answers
80 views

Do we need to assume underlying returns are normal in BSM model, given Central Limit Theorem?

I am trying to get a better understanding of Central Limit Theorem and how it can be used in life and in finance. From what I have read, the BSM model assumes the underlying asset's simple returns ...
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1answer
58 views

Can we use Black-Scholes to price path dependent options?

I know that we can use the Black-Scholes framework to price vanilla products like a European call or put, where the payoff only depends on the share price at maturity. But can we use it to price path ...
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1answer
165 views

Relationship between asset volatility and debt and equity value

So how I understand it, higher asset volatility implies a higher call option price. The Merton Model holds that the value of equity is a call option. This therefore implies that the equity value must ...
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38 views

Reference for pricing geometric-mean basket option

Let $(Z_1,\ldots,Z_N)$ be an $N$-dimensional Brownian motion with correlation matrix $\rho$ and consider the multivariate Black-Scholes model \begin{align} dS_i(t) \ = \ (r-q_i)\, S_i(t) \, dt \, + \,...
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3answers
225 views

Heging against stochastic interest rate

I am working on an Index and I am trying to price Call options on it. I work with the 3 Months LIBOR as Cash. I use the following Black-Scholes formula $$C_{t} = S_{t}e^{-q_{t}(T-t)}\mbox{N}[d_{1}(t)]...
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1answer
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Where can I find a clear explanation (brief derivation) of N(d1) and N(d2)?

Where can I find a good explanation (perhaps with a brief derivation) of N(d1) and N(d2) from Black-Scholes? Just trying to understand the general idea about these 2 probability functions and how they ...
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B-S derivative with another boundary condition

I want to use the derivation of BS for another type of derivative, not an option. Known the derivation of the Black-Scholes differential equation, is it possible to use in the same equation when my ...
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2answers
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Transformation from the Black-Scholes differential equation to the diffusion equation - and back

I know the derivation of the Black-Scholes differential equation and I understand (most of) the solution of the diffusion equation. What I am missing is the transformation from the Black-Scholes ...
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1answer
68 views

Option and probability of finishing in the money?

This seems to be another easy question but I am a bit confused. I know delta is a proxy for an option finishing ITM. Delta also happens to be N(d1) in the BSM pricing model. N(d1) usually is pretty ...
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1answer
54 views

Modifying Basic Black Scholes Equation For Time Dependent Variables - Per Wilmott?

I am reading Wilmott's book and don't understand why he makes the following step to re-write the PDE. I get equation 8.4, that's just the typical PDE for a dividend yielding stock where r(t), D(t) ...
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1answer
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How to calculate premium in Black Scholes model with quantlib?

I am new to quantlib as well as option price modelling. I need to get premium from black scholes model and found this code in internet ...
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1answer
146 views

Gil-Palaez Inversion Formula in Black Scholes world

I am trying to calculate numerically the price of a plain vanilla call through Fourier Transform, by applying the Gil-Pelaez formula. More precisely, we have that \begin{equation} C(K) = S_0 \Pi_1 - ...
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What are some useful approximations to the Black-Scholes formula?

Let the Black-Scholes formula be defined as the function $f(S, X, T, r, v)$. I'm curious about functions that are computationally simpler than the Black-Scholes that yields results that approximate $...
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1answer
54 views

Black Scholes Replication If Underlying Does Not Move?

Let's say you are long a call and want to replicate that call buy being short underlying and long bonds. If the underlying moves up in the next period but not enough to cover theta, the option ...
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What is the reason that an American option has a lower volatility than an European counterpart?

I was researching some plain vanilla option American/Option data and I found some European option which are more expensive than there American counterpart (all other factors are equal, except for the ...
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What is the cause of a “broken” volatility surface?

I am currently working on a project for which I need the implied volatility surfaces, to estimate the value of plain-vanilla European options with different strikes (cannot be observed directly in the ...
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1answer
134 views

Variance of cash gamma (or dollar gamma)

Let us assume we are in the Black-Scholes model. Is there a closed formula for the variance of the cash-gamma? I define cash gamma as $CG = S_t^2 * \Gamma(t,S_t)$, assuming interest rates are 0 to ...
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1answer
52 views

Is it possible to transform arithmetic-average strike continuous sampling Asian Black-Scholes equation to a heat equation?

By Transformation from the Black-Scholes differential equation to the diffusion equation - and back, we are able to transform vanilla European option into a heat equation. And we know that the ...
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Put-call parity for equity share and debt share

Considering Merton's structural approach" for credit risk modeling, we arrive to prove that the pricing formules are $S_t=V_t\phi(d_{T,1})-Fe^{-r(T-t)}\phi(d_{T,2})$ for equity share and $F_t=FP_0(t,T)...
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2answers
154 views

Forward Volatility vs Spot Volatility in Option Skew Models

My question is regarding Volatility Skew Models and their inputs. I have noticed that a vast majority of models take as an input the forward of the underlying (even in the case of stocks - where the ...
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1answer
34 views

Risk-neutral pricing the “un”guaranteed benefits of an insurance policy

I'd love to know if the model of Black-Scholes-Merton could be used to anything that replicates the payoff of a call or option, for example: An insurance contract with participation ( meaning that ...
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1answer
57 views

Stochastic solution (mean, variance) to lognormal drift and normal volatility

I have trouble deriving the state equations for a mixture of normal/lognormal stochastic differential, namely for its a) expected mean, (b) variance, and (c) drift adjustment for LMM - libor model I ...
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Forward implied volatility

Can one price accurately by only using vanilla options a derivative that is exposed/sensitive mainly to the forward volatility ? If it is impossible, why do we hear sometimes "being long a long ...
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146 views

Is there a method to interpolate the volatility smile?

I have a small question of interest. During my classes at the university I have learned about the Nelson-Siegel method to fit interest rate curves. With this method you are able to determine interest ...