Questions tagged [black-scholes]

Black-Scholes is a mathematical model used for pricing options.

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186 views

No arbitrage conditions for normal implied volatility

usually the term implied volatility refers to Black-Scholes implied volatility (also Log-Normal volatility): it is defined as a quantity which when plugged in the Black-Scholes formula returns the ...
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242 views

implied volatility and strike price

Assume for simplicity that the expiration time of an option is $1$ the initial stock price is $1$ and there is no dividend yield and the risk free return is $0$. How is it possible to show that the ...
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106 views

Pricing and hedging of vanilla options based on non-tradable underlying

Consider a non-tradable stock index $S$ which satisfies: $dS_t=\mu S_tdt+\sigma S_tdW_t$ and a risk-free asset $B$. I want to price an European Call option with the payoff $C_T=max(S_T-K,0)$. The ...
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230 views

pricing option with two stocks

Let $\left(S_t^{(1)}\right)_{t\ge0}$ and $\left(S_t^{(2)}\right)_{t\ge0}$ be the price processes of two stocks with dynamics $$ \begin{align} & dS_t^{(1)}=\sigma_{11}S_t^{(1)}dW_t^{(1)} \...
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68 views

Is there an arbitrage free option model that treats volatility as a deterministic function of strike?

I am trying to get a good understanding of the different models out there, and thus be able to study hedging errors, and strengths and weaknesses. My understanding of the Local Volatility model in ...
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255 views

Finding the dynamics of a dividend paying asset under arbitrary numeraire

Assuming I have a dividend paying asset $S$ with dividend process $D$. Now I would like to use the bank account process $B$ as numeraire and determine the dynamics of $S$ under the the corresponding ...
4
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338 views

Black-Scholes PDE to heat equation, nonconstant coefficients

Can someone provide me with details or a reference on how to transform the Black-Scholes PDE with nonconstant coefficients (i.e. $r=r\left(S,t\right)$, $\sigma=\sigma\left(S,t\right)$) to the heat ...
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58 views

Deriving the black-scholes formula for the European asset-or-nothing call option

I would like to find out what boundary/final conditions i should be using to find the formula for a European asset-or-nothing call option, as i feel that is where I'm making my mistake. I've read ...
3
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61 views

Two barrier options puzzle

I come across an interesting question about barrier option as shown below. Two barrier options are given with the same parameters including the barrier level. The first one is knocked out when it ...
3
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48 views

How to Compute the payoff of Var Swaps, which I have replicated

I used Derman(1999) method, to calculate the fixed Kvar for Variance Swaps using actual option price data. The first Pic Shows the outcome. (ignore the 0s). Now the profit and loss of short var swaps ...
3
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109 views

How to interpret CDF($d_1$)/PDF($d_1$) from BS model ?

In my research on put options, I come across the ratio: $\frac{(1-\mathcal{N}(d_1))}{\mathcal{N'}(d_1)}$ where $d_1=\frac{\log(S/X)+(r+\sigma^2/2)t}{\sigma \sqrt{t}}$ and $\mathcal{N}(.)$ is the ...
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89 views

Which areas of statistical physics do not get enough attention in quantitative finance?

It seems that over the past few decades many ideas from statistical physics have been successfully incorporated into economics and finance to form the sub-discipline of econophysics. However, it is ...
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493 views

Black-Scholes PDE - Change of Variables

In the derivation below, I cannot figure out how to solve for "Step 3". Can anyone help me walk through the steps in detail? Derivation:
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109 views

Pricing Options on Fixed Income ETFs

The market for trading options on fixed income ETFs like HYG has become increasingly prominent in the past couple years, but I've been unable to find any discussion related to the pricing methodology ...
3
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565 views

Black-Scholes explicit Euler implementation python

I've written some code for the explicit finite difference method to solve the BS equation. For certain sets of parameters (time-steps and asset-steps) I get a stable but wrong solution. For others, ...
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73 views

Range options in BS

I know how barrier options are priced in Black-Scholes scheme. I'm wondering if an analytical formula exists also for range (corridor) digital options i.e. options paying only if the price remains ...
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269 views

PDE and Black Scholes problem

Consider Black Scholes problem $\frac{\partial V}{\partial t} + \frac{\sigma^2 S^2}{2}\frac{\partial^2V}{\partial S^2} + rS\frac{\partial V}{\partial S} -rV = 0$ with boundary condition $V(S,T)=f(S)$, ...
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3k views

Black Scholes diffusion well coded in Python

I have some trouble with the following code. Some jump and a decentered path are present but it's not the case, normally for Black Scholes diffusion! Is anyone see a problem in my code ? ...
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488 views

Pricing a Power Contract derivative security

I'm trying to price a "power contract" and would appreciate guidance on the next step. The payoff at time $T$ is $(S(T)/K)^\alpha$, where $K > 0$, $\alpha \in \mathbb{N}$, $T > 0$. $S$ is ...
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58 views

Fast implied volatility for american options

Peter Jäckel has developped a method to compute implied volatilites from option prices, called "by implication", see the papers : By Implication Let's be Rational on its website -- as well as a ...
2
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71 views

What are the main problems for calculating the implied volatility of in the money American put options?

As stated in the question I have a problem with calculating the implied volatility for in the money put options I have a data set of 2.6 million American style plain-vanilla call and put options. For ...
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205 views

Black-Scholes equation to Heat equation .(Boundary conditions)

I have been given a problem to code the heat equation which is transformed from B-S equation (European call option) . Now the boundary conditions are for European call option: $$C(S,T)=\max(S-K,0)$$...
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71 views

SDE of futures price under non-constant interest rate and volatility process

I'm trying to figure out the form of the SDE of futures price under the risk neutral measure, when stock price follows GBM:             &...
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178 views

Black Scholes to Heat Equation - Substitution

Sorry as really basic question. Chapter 8 of Wilmott introduces Q Finance the BS equation is transformed into the heat equation. Firstly by using $ V(S,t) \rightarrow \mathrm{e}^{-r(T - t)}U(S,t) $ ...
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146 views

Arbitrage from ATM option trading?

So I was testing out a collar options strategy (long put, short call, and long shares of the underlying stock) in a backtest for a school finance project, and the profits & losses are given by the ...
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163 views

Expectation of option value

Say we are in a BS world where the (conditional on t) price of a call is given by the usual $$V(S_t)=V(S_t;K,r,\sigma,T|F_t) = \Phi(d_1)S_t - \Phi(d_2)Ke^{-r(T-t)}$$ Now, what about the ...
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1answer
181 views

Expected value of delta-hedged portfolio

Consider portfolio in black-scholes world $\Pi = \Delta S - V$, where $S$ is the stock price and V is the price of the option. I have read that if we set $\Delta = \frac{\partial V}{\partial S} $ ...
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120 views

Beginner question on Black Scholes

Would you please confirm whether my understanding is correct please? (Sorry a lot of questions...) 1) BS is derived based on the assumption that during an infinitesimal time, we can replicate the ...
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59 views

Put Call Symmetry for arbitrary $t\in [0,T]$

I want to assume I am in a general Black Scholes Model with $r=0$ and $\delta=0$ and the typical filtered probability space. I know that $Call^{BS}(0, x, K, T) = Put^{BS}(0, K, x, T)$ with $x= S_0$, ...
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223 views

Understanding put-call parity

I'm a person with math background trying to break into quantitative finance, and there's something about put-call parity that is not making sense to me. Below I'll detail my understanding of the ...
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37 views

Transforming and minimisation of the BS PDE

I'm trying a novel numerical substitution/fitting method to solve the BS PDE, but the issue is that due to the large range of magnitude of prices $V(s,t)\in[10^{-20},10^1]$, when I try to minimise the ...
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279 views

Why is Bachelier implied volatility more skewed than the Black-Scholes implied volatility?

I found the following explanation in a paper by Grunspan (see attached paper page 6) but have trouble understanding it: By differentiating Formula (3) with respect to m, it turns out that the ...
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237 views

Pricing of multi strike rainbow options

I am looking at the pricing of a two asset multi strike option in the Black Scholes framework but I am struggling with coming up with a pricing formula. The payoff of the option at maturity is \...
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131 views

Option pricing formula for deep in-the/out-of money options?

I am learning option pricing and trying to calculate the call and put price using the Black-Scholes Formula. I have calculated the historical volatility to be 0.232. The formula is gives value close ...
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161 views

Normalized Gains Process is a Q-Martingale - Proof and Intuition

I'm trying to work the proof that the normalized gains process, $G^z_t = \frac{S_t}{B_t}+\int^t_0\frac{1}{B_s}dD_s$ is a Q-martingale under Q (the risk-neutral measure). I'll show what I've worked ...
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725 views

Problem with R code, with option pricing

I have a problem with my R code not producing accurate results. I am trying to implement the Carr-Madan approach to option pricing, using the Black-Scholes model. The formula can be found in equation (...
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105 views

Problems with a Black-Scholes modified equation

I haven't really studied much financial mathematics until about 2 months ago so I'm quite new to this stuff, so I'm sorry if this is a trivial question. At the moment I'm trying to work out what the ...
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78 views

Capital increase: which stock price to use as input to Black-Scholes formula?

For an exercise we have to calculate the theoretical value of a scrip / preferential right on its issue day (23 April) in the context of a capital increase. The scrips are issued on 23 April. The ...
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114 views

Which option pricing models agree best with the market, given the asset price is known?

Assuming you can somewhat forecast the underling asset price movement, and you want to translate this value into the corresponding option price. In practice, which are the better models for this task? ...
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400 views

Black Scholes with Dilution

I've seen two ways to account for dilution when valuing a European option using Black Scholes. I'm not sure which is the correct way and why these methods differ. The two ways I've seen are: 1) ...
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76 views

What is the main reasons to use Miltersen & Schartz (1998) model for commodity futures options

versus a standard Generalised Black and Scholes model (if there are any?) I have read the paper but I am not to sure about its practical implications as would people with more experience using this ...
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82 views

Calculating the error of a Trinomial Model

I've been trying to find a formula to obtain the maximum relative error a trinomial model with n timesteps will incur given all other inputs as compared to the standard BSM model. I'm concerned mostly ...
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86 views

Changes to option valuation for dollar-pegged underlying

In Russia, options on futures on the RTS index are priced in points instead of currency, with points being directly related to the value of the US dollar such that, for example, if the dollar rises, ...
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1answer
53 views

Is it possible to calculate the equity required (or expected) return using Black-Scholes option pricing model?

I know the method of calculating the equity value as a European call option (using Black-scholes formula). My question is: Is it possible to calculate the expected (or required) return of equity when ...
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48 views

What is the reason that an American option has a lower volatility than an European counterpart?

I was researching some plain vanilla option American/Option data and I found some European option which are more expensive than there American counterpart (all other factors are equal, except for the ...
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59 views

What is the cause of a “broken” volatility surface?

I am currently working on a project for which I need the implied volatility surfaces, to estimate the value of plain-vanilla European options with different strikes (cannot be observed directly in the ...
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90 views

Is there a method to interpolate the volatility smile?

I have a small question of interest. During my classes at the university I have learned about the Nelson-Siegel method to fit interest rate curves. With this method you are able to determine interest ...
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60 views

Correlation between Two Factor Gaussian Shortrate Model and Black Scholes Model

I want to implement a two factor Gaussian Shortrate Model \begin{align} r(t) & = x(t) + y(t) + \phi(t), \\ dx(t) & = -ax(t)dt + \sigma dB_1 (t), \\ dy(t) & = -by(t)dt + \eta dB_2(t), \end{...
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33 views

Numerical Solution to 3 Dimensional Backward BS PDE

I have a three dimensional backward BS PDE. $$ \frac{\partial V}{\partial t} + a(t) S \frac{\partial V}{\partial S} + \frac{1}{2} \sigma(t, S)^2 \frac{\partial^2 V}{\partial S^2} + b(t, M) \frac{\...
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20 views

Pricing a transfer option for oil

Need some input in how to attack this problem. Given are 8 timeseries: UK Oil price, Delivery Quarter 1 2020 UK Oil price, Delivery Quarter 2 2020 UK Oil price, Delivery Quarter 3 2020 UK Oil price, ...