Questions tagged [black-scholes]

Black-Scholes is a mathematical model used for pricing options.

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Black Scholes modified boundary conditions

Compute the price of the payoff $(2\log(S(T))-K)^+$. Before I do any algebra, I want to make sure I understand. To solve this problem, I need to solve the Black Scholes PDE with boundary condition $C(...
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90 views

Why can derivatives be viewed as a portfolio of the underlying and the riskless asset?

I am struggling with the statement: "Every derivative of the underlying can be viewed as a portfolio of the underlying asset and the riskless asset." Is this based on the put-call parity? Also I ...
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64 views

Why can a deterministic portfolio only grow at risk free rate

In black scholes derivation we assume that portfolio grows at risk free rate because the process is deterministic, my question is why is it riskfree rate? If i have information about some event in the ...
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132 views

P&L Calculation of Option Strategy

I have designed a call writing option strategy, where I am rolling the options upon expiry, i.e., my portfolio consists of one short call position at any given time. I have a time series of the value ...
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135 views

Dynamic hedging pnl when pinning

Dynamic hedging, if successfully implemented, should ensure the dynamic hedge earns the exact opposite of the corresponding option position. However, if we buy an otm option, and the stock goes in ...
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436 views

Different Results Monte Carlo and Black-Scholes - where is my mistake?

as an exercise, I am trying to simulate the BS model via Monte Carlo Simulation in R to price a normal European-style call option. However, the code will give me results that are way higher than the ...
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102 views

ITM call delta when T increases

for an expiring European in-the-money (ITM) call (delta = 0.9), if $T$ increases from 1 to 30, what should delta be now? Let's say $K = 100$, $S_0 = 105$, $\sigma = 10%$. Intuitively I think the ...
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83 views

Assumption in black scholes solution

Under the usual notations, In most textbooks on Quantative Finance, for deriving the Black-Scholes solution I find that authors, while setting up the riskless portfolio, assume that, $$\text{d} (\...
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164 views

How do I modify my basic black scholes model in Excel to price american options?

I've modeled a basic black scholes model in Excel and I have been using it to price European options for backtesting purposes. This has been working fantastically and I would like to adjust this to ...
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55 views

influence of exponential-Lévy on a call price

Thank you all for answering my question. I wanted to know what influence has the exponential-Lévy model on a call price (how the curve changes). If we add Merton jumps, we get an EDPID like this one: ...
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172 views

Using black scholes to model a clawback in private equity

I am new to Black Scholes, and trying to use it to model a clawback in private equity. Essentially, a clawback gives the "limited" partners in the deal the option to pull some funds away from the "...
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Black's model and Monte Carlo

It is well know that one uses the Black 76 model to price commodity derivatives. I would however like to perform a Monte Carlo simulation that ties back to this number. How would one go about this ...
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Using RQuantLib in Java with RJava

Can't seem to get an answer to this on stackoverflow. I'm relatively new to using RJava and was getting a null pointer exception from a piece of code I was trying out. I suspect that this could be due ...
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357 views

Training data for Black Scholes

What sources of data suitable for training approximations to Black-Scholes are freely available to academics? My understanding is that the parameters to Black-Scholes are: share price strike price ...
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2k views

Use of cash delta vs forward delta and the mirror image rule

There has been no mention in this text of why this formula uses forward delta not cash delta. Why should have this been obvious to the reader? How can a put be delta neutral at 30%, what does this ...
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238 views

Which value to use as shape parameter for Black-Scholes lognormal distribution?

When working with Scipy, lognomal distribution is defined by 3 parameters: the median (loc), the scale (standard deviation or, in our case, the implied volatility) and the shape parameter. But, which ...
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Normal Black-Scholes model for swaptions isn't working properly

I just wrote two functions in Matlab which calculates the swaption prices based on the Lognormal model and on the Normal model, although I have the idea that the Normal model is wrong because the ...
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143 views

For a call option, what is the real-world probability of expiring in-the-money?

In the Black-Scholes world, the risk-neutral probability of expiring in-the-money is given by N(d2). Can I just replace the risk-free rate by the drift rate to obtain real world probabilities? Thank ...
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180 views

Leveraged ETF calculation - dropping below zero?

I'm running some simulations with a leveraged ETF to investigate that notorious leveraged-ETF decay effect I keep hearing about. When I put in a typical Black-Scholes lognormal model of returns on the ...
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252 views

Option greeks: sensitivity to 1% move

In a Black&Scholes framework how can I compute the following sensitivities: to 1% move in the underlying price to 1% move in implied volatility I would like the greeks to tell me how many ...
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198 views

Black scholes OTC

Let's say you want to find the fair price of a call option. One way is to use the black scholes formula. This assumes you can delta-hedge the underlying asset and the option to eliminate risk, and ...
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494 views

Can one use the Greeks (delta,gamma,theta) to show that the Black-Scholes call formula satisfies the Black-Scholes PDE?

If so, is there a derivation anywhere that shows this? I was told that this could be done in a class but I don't see how it's possible.
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OTC equity option under foreign currency CSA

What adjustment do I need to make to the Black-Scholes equation when the CSA of an OTC equity option is in a different currency than the underlying in order to get the correct price? For instance, ...
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In literature, is IV constantly adjusted during option delta hedging?

In a lot of literature, they like to compare the performance of buying an option, and then delta hedging either at that options implied volatility (IV) or the true future volatility. This is under ...
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39 views

Reference for pricing geometric-mean basket option

Let $(Z_1,\ldots,Z_N)$ be an $N$-dimensional Brownian motion with correlation matrix $\rho$ and consider the multivariate Black-Scholes model \begin{align} dS_i(t) \ = \ (r-q_i)\, S_i(t) \, dt \, + \,...
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Put-call parity for equity share and debt share

Considering Merton's structural approach" for credit risk modeling, we arrive to prove that the pricing formules are $S_t=V_t\phi(d_{T,1})-Fe^{-r(T-t)}\phi(d_{T,2})$ for equity share and $F_t=FP_0(t,T)...
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307 views

Swaption : Bloomberg Black implied volatility quotes and pricing in the Black model

I used a lot Bloomberg's VCUB for data, but never used its integrated swaption pricer "Quick Pricer for Swaptions", nor Bloomberg's "full" swaption pricer from "SWPM -OV". I am retrospectively quite ...
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How can I graph futures options profit/loss when the options have different underlyings?

Consider a portfolio of vanilla SPX monthly options that consists of two components, a SEP 2019 3000 Call and a DEC 2019 3000 Call. It's easy to graph these as they both share the same independent ...
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59 views

Stochastic solution (mean, variance) to lognormal drift and normal volatility

I have trouble deriving the state equations for a mixture of normal/lognormal stochastic differential, namely for its a) expected mean, (b) variance, and (c) drift adjustment for LMM - libor model I ...
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42 views

Calculation of Conditional Expected Value and Pay-Off Diagram

I have a stock with mu 6% and sigma 20% following a random walk and I would like to to calculate the Conditional expected Value of the stock in 10 states with equal probability (10%). Meaning, I would ...
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41 views

Free Call Option [duplicate]

Suppose we follow the assumptions of the Black-Scholes Model, including unlimited borrowing, continuous prices, and frictionless markets. For simplicity assume the risk-free rate is 0. In this world, ...
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43 views

How is a LIBOR Market Model volatility skew determined?

LIBOR based interest rates are derived from the prices (supply / demand) of swaptions, caps and floors. These prices are generally quoted in yield vols. Their prices are given by the Black formula. ...
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Volatiliy in a at-the-time call option [duplicate]

I understand that the vega of the Black-Scholes equation is a positive function, which means the value of the option is an INCREASING function of the volatility, since vega is the derivative of the ...
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If the value of a call option is not dependent on the drift of the stock, why does a higher stock price mean a higher call option price [duplicate]

I have read that the price of an option is not affected by the drift of the stock since the drift term doesn't appear in the Black Scholes PDE. I become confused because to me, this implies that the ...
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64 views

Monte Carlo simulated price and Black Scholes Price are giving a huge difference in my Matlab code

I have written a script for showing Monte Carlo Price for a increasing N. But comparing with BS results , This indicates a huge difference. Where is the error? Function : function [cpay,ppay] = ...
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577 views

Calculating historical Volatility for the Black Scholes Model [closed]

Below is a problem from the book "Options, Futures, and other Derivatives" by John C. Hull. I did the problem but I am fairly sure that my answer is wrong. I am hoping that somebody can tell me where ...
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85 views

Different scaling conventions for greeks

I have been following this tutorial (http://gouthamanbalaraman.com/blog/value-options-commodity-futures-black-formula-quantlib-python.html). It says in the conclusion and I quote:It is worth pointing ...
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Pricing call option on S&P 500 [duplicate]

How to price December 2020 maturity European call option of S&P 500 (Strike of 3000). What should be the risk free rate ?
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Interpretation of drift parameter $\mu$ in GBM

Currently studying Ito's calculus. Looking on the GBM model: $ \frac{d S_t}{S_t} = μ dt + \sigma d B_t$ we end up on the expected stock price at time t: $E[S_t]=s_0 e^{\mu t}$.What does actually $\mu$ ...
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169 views

Quoting options with reference price and delta

I always thought equity options where quoted with implied volatility, the price being given by the Black-Scholes price of the option with volatility equal to the implied volatlity. But apparently ...
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51 views

Is this the right formula to use implied volatility to gauge probability of a stock being within a certain range? [duplicate]

I read online somewhere, and I can't find it now, that to find the probability of a stock hitting a certain price within a certain time frame, we can use Implied Volatility: ...
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823 views

What is Dual Delta?

I understand that it is the partial derivative of option price with respect to strike. What is it used for though? What does your dual delta signify?
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129 views

Isn't this modified stop-loss strategy an arbitrage?

In John Hull's The Book, section 18.3 he briefly discussed a stop-loss strategy for writing a call option: buy one share of stock whenever $S_t>K$ and sell it otherwise (except at time $0$: if $S_0\...
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4k views

Monte Carlo European Option Pricing

I've written code below that simulates GBM paths for determining the price of a given European call option and put option. The stock is priced at 150 USD, strike price at 155 USD, risk-free rate was ...
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143 views

Black's formula for a call option on a non-tradable underlying

I am looking for an explanation of the following fact, which seems to be rather simple yet I am missing something. Say that $S_t$ is a stock following GBM $$ dS_t = r S_td_t + \sigma S_t dW_t,$$ and ...
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Are there any papers measure the accuracy of various option pricing models against real market price?

There are many stochastic volatility option models not only require significant more computation/simulation comparing to the standard BSM model but also introdue large source of possible problems at ...
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109 views

To Collar or not to Collar

I have a conundrum. I have a stock that has had considerable price appreciation over the past year. Well over 100%. I no longer see any factor (or fundamentals) supporting it's current price (in the ...
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251 views

Derivation of Black Scholes using expected payoff [closed]

The payoff function of a call is $f(S_T, K) = (S_T - K)^+$, so the expected payoff should allow me to value the price of this call. $$ \mathbb{E}[f(S_T, K)] = \mathbb{E}[(S_T - K)^+] = \mathbb{E}[(...
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406 views

What is the intuition behind the equivalent martingale measure result?

"Suppose that f and g are the prices of traded securities dependent on a single source of uncertainty and define phi = f/g. The equivalent martingale measure shows that, when there are no arbitrage ...
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125 views

zero curvature boundary condition

Assume I am solving numerically Black Scholes PDE $$u_t+0.5\sigma^2s^2u_{ss}+rsu_s-ru=0$$ and I decided to have boundary condition on the right boundary as $u_{ss}=0$. One way is to write the discrete ...