Questions tagged [brownian-motion]

In mathematics, Brownian motion is described by the Wiener process; a continuous-time stochastic process named in honor of Norbert Wiener.

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Expected Growth

The model assumption of the Black-Scholes formula has two parameters for the geometric Brownian motion, the volatility $\sigma$ and the expected growth $\mu$ (which disappears in the option formulae). ...
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Ito`s Lemma problem

Can someone help me with calculus for this problem. I have these 3 equations and with Ito`s Lemma I have to find $dXt$. \begin{cases} dY= μYdt+σYdB \\ X=\frac{1}{2}cY\\ dc =-aαcdt\end{cases}
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828 views

GBM probability of hitting barrier

I tried using the brownian bridge approach to determine the probability $$P(S_t<\beta,t\in [0,T]|S_0,S_T)$$ where $S_t$ is a GBM in the usual Black Scholes setup. We know that for a BM $W_t$, $$...
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Geometric Brownian Motion: percentage returns vs log-returns

In classical calculus, we know that the limit of percentage return (ie $dS/S$) equals that of the log return (ie. $dln(S)$ ). With uncertainty, we rely on Ito Lemma to draw a relationship between the ...
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Black Scholes in Practice: Delta Hedging

From the Wikipedia page, we know call option as an example is price through delta hedging. $$\Pi=-V+V_SS$$ and over $[t,t+\triangle t]$ $$\triangle\Pi=-\triangle V+V_S\triangle S$$ My questions ...
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271 views

Quadratic variation of an integral of a function of a Brownian motion

I'm asked to find the quadratic variation of the integral $\int_{0}^{t} W_s^2 ds$.
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Calibration of a GBM - what should dt be?

I have a time series of daily data that I want to calibrate GBM parameters $\mu$ and $\sigma$ to. Using the discretized solution $$ S_{t_{i+1}} = S_{t_i}\exp\left(\left(\mu - \frac{\sigma^2}{2}\...
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1answer
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Three proofs regarding brownian motions and martingales

1. Let $(B_t)_{t \geq 0}$ and $(W_t)_{t \geq 0}$ be two standard Brownian motions and let $X_t := B_t W_t$. Is $(X_t)_{t \geq 0}$ a martingale? The easiest way to proceed seems to be to apply Ito's ...
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Constructing a Brownian motion from a Simple Random Walk

I'm trying to get my head around how a Brownian motion is formed from a simple random walk. I've seen two similar methods used: Why has one approach used $\frac{1}{\sqrt{k}}$ and the other hasn't? ...
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1answer
266 views

Ito's Lemma for this problem

I'm attempting to prove a lemma from a paper, in the context of optimal contracts. $r,\rho,\gamma,\alpha,\sigma$ are all known constants. $dR_t = (\alpha + r)dt + \sigma dZ_t$ where $Z_t$ is a ...
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612 views

Distribution of time integral of Brownian motion squared (where the Brownian motion occurs in square root time)?

Let $I_t = \int_0^t W_{\sqrt{u}}^2du$. What is the distribution of $I$? If I recall correctly, if the Brownian motion were instead $W_u$, then it would be $I_t \sim N\left(\frac{t^2}{2},\frac{t^4}{3}\...
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Covariance of brownian motion and its time average

It's a question pertaining to the correlation of a log asset process (following BM) and its time average, to put it into form, if $$X(t)=\mu t+\sigma W(t)$$ then $$ \bar{X}(t):=\frac{1}{t}\int_0^tX(...
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Autocovariance of increments of a semimartingale

Say that $X_t$ is an Itō process with \begin{equation} dX_t = \mu_t dt + \sigma_t dW_t \end{equation} where $\mu_t$ and $\sigma_t$ are adapted processes. Is it always true that \begin{equation} E[...
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Geometric brownian motion vs. Ornstein Uhlenbeck

I'm looking at the SDE of Geometric brownian motion(*): $$d X(t) = \sigma X(t) d B(t) + \mu X(t) d t$$ (with analytic solution $X(t) = X(0) e^{(\mu - \sigma^2 / 2) t + \sigma B(t)}$) and the SDE of ...
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How to price an European Call/Put Option of a jump difussion Process?

Lets have the next jump difussion Stochastic Process: $$S_t = S_0 e^{\sigma W_t + (v-\frac{\sigma ^2}{2})t}\prod_{i=1}^{N_t}(1+J_i)$$ where $W_t$ is the Brownian Motion, hence $G_t \equiv e^{\sigma ...
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Why is the black-scholes model arbitrage free when σ>0?

I want to show that: if $σ$ is positive then there is no arbitrage in the model, even if $r > µ$. Whilst I have satisfied this for $ r > \mu$, I cannot see why the conditioning on $\sigma>0 $ ...
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Summary of Stochastic Derivatives, Integrals, Expectations, and Variances

I wanted to make a summary table of stochastic functions to improve my understanding. Maybe the following should be a wiki page on this site so others can add functions and examples? Does the ...
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Distribution of portfolio values with constant spending rate

If your portfolio is invested in an asset that follows a geometric Brownian motion, and you withdraw a constant dollar amount at the beginning of each year, is there an approximate analytical ...
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Variance of Brownian Motion

Can someone point me into the right direction to calculate this one: $E(B^4_t)=3t^2$ I had tried using the following property with no luck: $E(B^4_t)=E(B^2_tB^2_t)=E(\int B^2 dt )E(\int B^2 dt )=[E(\...
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Price of Call Option with or without jumps

Suppose two assets in the Black Scholes world have the same volatility, but different drifts and that one has downward jumps at random times. How does this affect the option prices? I would have ...
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Expectation of $\int_0^t \frac{1}{1+W_s^2} \text dW_s$ [duplicate]

I am trying to calculate the expectation of $$\int\limits_0^t \frac{1}{1+W_s^2} \text dW_s,$$ where $(W_t)$ is a Wiener process. I was told that the value of this expectation is zero. Can someone ...
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Show that $E[B_t|\mathscr{F}_s] = B_s$ for $B_t = W_t^3 - 3 t W_t$

Given prob space $(\Omega, \mathscr{F}, P)$ and a Wiener process $(W_t)_{t \geq 0}$, define filtration $\mathscr{F}_t = \sigma(W_u : u \leq t)$ Let $(B_t)_{t \geq 0}$ where $B_t = W_t^3 - 3tW_t$. ...
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What's the variance of this Ito integral?

I am reading stochastic calculus and I have understood that the process $$X=\int_{0}^{1}\sqrt{\frac{\tan^{-1}t}{t}}dW_t$$ has normal distribution with mean zero. How can I find the variance of $X$?
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probability question about brownian motion

Assume $W_{t}$ is a standard Brownian Motion, calculate the the probability that $W_{t}*W_{2t}$ is negative, i.e., $P(W_{t}*W_{2t}<0)$. I find it tricky to calculate the probability.Thank you.
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316 views

Correlation between stock prices given correlation between returns

assume I have two stocks with known volatilities and a known correlation coefficient of returns - does anyone know how to determine the correlation between the prices and NOT THE RETURNS
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Fractional Brownian motion

In Mandelbrot(1968)'s paper, the fractional brownian motion, denoted by $B_{H}(t,\omega)$,(t>0) is defined by $$B_{H}(0,\omega)=b_{0}$$ $$B_{H}(t,\omega)-B_{H}(0,\omega)=\frac{1}{\Gamma(H+\frac{1}{2})...
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Solution to SDE being Evolution of Price Process

I am trying to explain the concept of a solution to SDE being the model for the evolution of a price process. How would you do this to someone who doesn't have a financial engineering background? ...
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1answer
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Correlation coeffitiont between two stochastic processes

I want to find correlation coeffitiont between $W_t$ and $\int_{0}^{t}W_s ds$. I think that these are uncorrelated. But Why? So thanks
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Intuition behind prices modeled by Geometric Brownian Motion

Suppose that we model a price $P_t$ to evolve per $$\frac{dP_t}{P_t}=\mu dt+\sigma dW_t$$ for $\mu\in\mathbb{R}$ and $\sigma>0$. The unique strong solution to this diffusion is $$P_t=P_0e^{(\mu-\...
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1answer
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How to get the probability of exercise call option in Black-Scholes model?

From Black-Scholes model, I'm trying to prove: $p(S_t>K) = N(d_2)$ No luck yet! Can anyone suggest a reference showing that how to obtain this equation? All I get is: $S_t = S_0e^{ (\mu-0.5 \...
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1answer
683 views

negative values in geometric brownian motion

A GBM (Geometric Brownian Motion) $ \frac{dx}{x} = \mu dt + \sigma dW $ solves to $x_t = x_o e^{(\mu - \sigma^2)t + \sigma W_t}$ From the solution, it is clear that $x_t$ cannot become negative. ...
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Mark Joshi, The concepts and practice of mathematical finance chapter 6 exercise 4

Let an asset follow a Brownian motion $$dS = \mu dt + \sigma dW$$ with $\mu$ and $\sigma$ constant. The constant interest rate is $r$. What process does $S$ follow in the risk-neutral measure? ...
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787 views

Asymptotic behavior property of geometric Brownian Motion proof

Online I found the asymptotic behavior property of geometric Brownian Motion $X_t$as: If $\mu$ (drift parameter) is $\ge$ $\sigma^2/2$ where $\sigma$ is the volatility parameter, then $X_t \...
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Shortcomings of generalized Brownian motion for asset price modelling

I'm simply interested on hearing some views on which shortcomings arise by using the (multidimensional) SDE $$dS(t)=S(t)\alpha(t,S(t))dt+S(t)\sigma(t,S(t))dW(t)$$ as a model for asset prices. I know ...
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Invariance Scaling of Brownian Motion

Prove $\frac{1}{\sqrt{t}}\log\left(\int_0^t \exp(B_s)\mathrm{d}s\right)$ converges to $\sup\limits_{t\in [0,1]}B_t$ in distribution as $t\to\infty$. I have a sense to use scaling invariance, but no ...
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Random Walk with normal increments and n time periods why is the increment $\sqrt{(t/n)}$?

Question is basically in the title. I have found several sources stating that $R_i = \sqrt{\frac{t}{n}}$, but I couldn't find the intuition behind taking the square root. And it seems to be crucial ...
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Discounted risky asset stochastic process problem

$S_t$ is the random variable representing the risky asset price at time $t$. M_t is the riskless asset. They are governed by the equations $\frac{dS_t}{dt}=\mu dt + \sigma dZ_t$ and $dM_t = rM_t ...
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Expected payoff at future time

Let $a$, $b$, $c$, and $e$ be constants, $W_1$ and $W_2$ be Brownian motions with correlation $\rho$, and $f(t)$ and $g(t)$ be deterministic functions of time. Let $X$ satisfy $$d(X(t))=(aX(t)+ef(t)g(...
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Brownian Bridge's first passage time distribution

Let's say we have a Brownian Bridge $Y_{b,T}(t)$ such that $Y_{b,T}(0)=0$, $Y_{b,T}(T)=b$. Let's say we are interested in the first passage time of $Y_{b,T}(t)$ at level $b$: $\tau_b = \{\min \tau; ...
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Comparison of Brownian Motion Expected Drawdown and simulated results

Can anyone tell me whether results as predicted by Brownian Motion for a given mean and std, match what you get by measuring actual drawdown from simulated results over a number of iterations?
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Geometric Brownian Motion unable to model / predict jumps

In my finance course, we were talking about the flaws of modelling Stock Prices with the geometric Brownian Motion. According to my professor: "Since the geometric Brownian Motion has continous time ...
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1answer
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Girsanov Theorem application to Geometric Brownian Motion

I recently read this from a book on mathematical finance The important example for finance the (unique) EMM for the geometric Brownian. Let $S_{t}$ be the price of an asset, $${{d{S_t}} \over {{...
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How to prove we have a $\mathbb{Q}$-Brownian motion?

Background Information: This question comes from the book Financial Calculus by Baxter and Rennie. WE start with looking at the marginal of $W_T$ under $\mathbb{Q}$. We need to find the likelihood ...
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Geometric Brownian Motion - increasing simulations or smaller step size

I am running Monte Carlo simulations to estimate future share prices of some stocks. For stock A, I need 1 share price exactly one year from now. For stock B, I need daily prices for each trading ...
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1answer
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Linear-Boundary Crossing Problem for Brownian Motion

This is a question I came across while reading: $W = (W_t)_{t\geq{0}}$ is a standard BM. Let $\mu\in \mathbb{R}$, and let $\tau_{a}^{\mu}$ = $\inf(t>0;W_t = a + \mu{t})$ be the first passage time ...
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Advantages of pathwise calculus over stochastic calculus in continuous self-financing trading models

I am new to stochastic calculus but the statement below confuses me: Beside the issue of the impossible consensus on a probability measure, the representation of the gain from trading lacks a ...
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Calculating the stochastic integral of $\exp(-rt)S_t$

I am currently reading lecture notes which aim to show that if $$ S_t = S_0 \exp (\mu t + \sigma W_t) $$ then, under the probability measure $\tilde{\mathbb{P}}$ with density $$ \gamma_T = \exp (c W_T ...
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Modelling returns in the real world measure with or without drift

What I would like to discuss is the following. I don't think that this is a pure duplicate, so I would be happy about comments: On one hand it is reasonable to model log-returns as Gaussian: $$ \log(...
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637 views

Monte Carlo, convexity and Risk-Neutral ZCB Pricing

I've built a simplistic Excel monte carlo model to price a zero-coupon bond, but it came up with a slightly unepxected result so I wanted to confirm whether my maths is just a little rusty or my model ...
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1answer
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Discounted asset price is martingale in BS model

I want to verify that the discounted stock price process $\mathrm{e}^{-r(T-t)}V(S_t,t)$ is a martingale in the BS-model. Using Ito's formula and the BS-PDE I get that $$ \mathrm{d}\mathrm{e}^{-r(T-t)}...

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