Questions tagged [derivatives]

A financial contract whose payoff is linked to the evolution of an underlying security.

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33 views

Pricing of a barrier reverse convertible in python with monte carlo simulation

I'm a finance student and try to do the pricing of a given barrier reverse convertible. This has to be done by a Monte-Carlo-Simulation in Python. The underlying is a stock of ING Groep N.V. Strike ...
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Conceptual doubt on when to use cost discounting [closed]

In this question I have used put-call parity twice to get the discounting factor for time period 0 to t (which I feel is of no use for this question). Also I found the initial payoff and final payoff. ...
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81 views

Martingale proof: Call-prices must be increasing in maturity

I have observed that IV is increasing with time to maturity by using market prices and plotting IV (from Black-Scholes) against log-moneyness, $\log(S_t/K)$. $S_t$ being the price of the stock at time ...
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1answer
61 views

Show that the price of a LIBOR rate paid in advance is a linear combination of caplets

Let $L(t, T_1, T_2)$ be the forward LIBOR rate at time $t$ for the period $T_1$ to $T_2$. If a security pays some multiple of $L(T_1, T_1, T_2)$ at time $T_1$, how can we show that the price of this ...
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23 views

Higher Capital and margin requirement for bilateral Non-central cleared OTC Derivatives

The OTC Derivatives reforms after Global Financial Crisis include higher capital and margin requirement for bilateral traded OTC derivatives? I have the followings questions: The higher capital ...
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26 views

Valuing Conditional “All Or Nothing” Multi Asset Options

I would like some insight as to how to value modified rainbow options on multiple assets: For example: A multi asset option, Call GOOG with $S_t$ \$1600 that you may exercise if and only if you also ...
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1answer
57 views

Bachelier call option derivative w.r.t strike

I tried to take the partial derivative of the Bachelier call function w.r.t. strike price K (eqn 2.2 here), but my result is not lining up with what is shown on page 43 here.
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326 views

Risk Neutral Valuation, Drifts and Calibration

Lets consider a pricing model like Vasicek. Apparently, if you calibrate a derivatives pricing model to market prices this gives you risk neutral parameters. Its not clear to me as to WHY this will ...
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FX hedged investments

I was reading FX hedged investments do not have an impact on the FX rate. For example, a Japanese fund buying US treasuries fully FX hedged. I understand the hedging is usually done through short term ...
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107 views

Hull on Futures: I am not able to understand this sentence

The usual rule chosen by the exchange is to pass the notice of intention to deliver on to the party with the oldest outstanding long position. ...
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32 views

Futures positioning reported by CFTC

How is the net futures position calculated by the CFTC? For instance, GBPUSD net contract is positive in the CFTC report, what does it mean given that for each buyer there is a seller?
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Margin Requirement model for CCP and non-central cleared OTC derivatives

What the models for computing margin requirement for central counterparty (CCP) and non-central cleared OTC derivatives.
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India's FX foward market

https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-05-04/india-asks-state-banks-to-protect-dollar-assets-on-cairn-concern Based on this article USDINR forward premium has spiked as there is abundant USD ...
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49 views

How to convert CDX spread to price?

Example: assume the current HY CDX is with 5% coupon. The spread is around 300bps, with a duration of around 4 years. Would you pls help me to understand why we can proxy the HY CDX price as 100+4*(5%-...
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390 views

Differences between main classes of interest pricing derivatives models

There seems to be 3 main classes of interest rate pricing models: 1) Short rate models, 2) Heath Jarrow models and 3) Libor Market Model. My book doesnt seem to explain why we need all these different ...
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149 views

FX Options price vs implied vol

From the screenshot below, what is the difference between the option price by strike in the table versus the implied volatilities by delta in the chart at the bottom? https://www.investing.com/...
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141 views

Currency trades

I usually read statements as the below: "Bank A recommends long positions in the yuan against the Singapore dollar" How are these trades usually implemented? Borrow SGD and convert into CNY (...
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30 views

Commercially redistributable derivative market data source

Is there any derivatives market data source that gives permisson to use this data in a financial model and then sell a product with it? (derivatives valuation for example) I'm looking for a cheap ...
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63 views

Are there any studies on the link between energy markets and hedging-strategies for Cryptocurrency mining?

Full Disclaimer: I first asked this question on Bitcoin.SE, however I feel like my question is more relevant to this site as there would be wider knowledge and insight of some better sources or ...
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1answer
102 views

How does the underlying get delivered for electricity market derivatives?

I have been reading around energy markets recently and recent schemes such as Voluntary Carbon Markets, similar to the 'cap and trade' style of the Kyoto Agreement in 1997. I have been reading in ...
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121 views

What is the Radon-Nikodym derivative in the Heston model?

It is clear to me that $$ \frac{dQ}{dP} = e^{-\lambda W_T-\frac{\lambda^2}{2}T}$$ is the Radon-Nikodym derivative that defines the change of measure in the framework described by Black and Sholes. But ...
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700 views

Relationship between Vega and Gamma in Black-Scholes model

my question is the following one: I don't manage to prove that, in Black-Scholes model, single-signed Gamma options have values that are monotonic in the volatility. I am looking for an exhaustive and ...
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Is the market price of risk deterministic or stochastic in the Heston model?

I am recently digging into the Heston model and I have noticed that every author refers to the market price of risk simply as $\lambda$, or sometimes it is more clearly specified to be bi-dimensional ...
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127 views

Use of CNY and CNH derivatives

I was wondering what are the reasons why investors use USDCNH forwards vs NDF on USDCNY? Do you usually pick CNH for trade reasons, while CNY more for speculation as these are USD settled?
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Replicating portfolio in the Heston model

Given the Heston model $$dS_t=\mu S_tdt+\sqrt{\nu_t}S_tdB_{1,t}\\ d\nu_t=k(\theta-\nu_t)dt+\eta\sqrt\nu_tB_{2,t}$$ how should the replicating portfolio $V_t$ for the derivative $F_t$ be composed? I ...
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346 views

How do market makers calculate the IV for options?

This might be silly or basic question but I'm wondering how do a market makers do decide on fixing an option IV on certain level ? how do they do theirs calculations ? Thank you
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123 views

Hedging with FX swaps

I am trying to get the mechanic of the swap rollover. Funds usually hedge FX risk of their long term foreign assets (eg UST) with short term FX swaps (usually maturity < 1yr), by rolling over fx ...
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Derivatives notional amount in BankFocus

I'm searching for the notional amount of derivatives in banks' balance sheets. I'm using "BankFocus" (ex Bankscope) to download data. In balance sheet i find just the fair value of ...
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105 views

How is calculated the futures/forward convexity adjustment for FX?

I could find lots of stuff online for IR derivatives but it seems there isn't too much on FX for this specific adjustment.
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Valuing Option Credit Spreads

I'm trying to come up with a metric to value and compare spreads. One way that I was doing this was to compute the Expected Value of the spread. To calculate the expected value I used the following ...
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1answer
61 views

FX swap implied yield from bloomberg

I am trying to reproduce the bid EUR implied yield I see in the screenshot below for 1y tenor which is -0.6226%. EUR implied yield bid = spot_bid/fwd_bid *(1+i_USD_bid) - 1 Inputs from BBG terminal: ...
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span for spreads using options

I am trying to calculate the margin required for a spread in futures. The cme rules says that they use SPAN which goes through a few different cas to see what happens to the portfolio. If I have 2 ...
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Collateral and discounting of future cash flows

I am a beginner in this space and did some research on how the collateral posted affects the choice of the discounting curve in derivatives transactions. We have two scenarios based on the PV of a ...
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90 views

Bid Price of a Forward?

Say I am a market maker. The ask (me selling it) formula is pretty common in textbooks etc by no arbitrage: $$F = S \cdot \text{exp}(r-d)$$ where $r$ is interest rate and $d$ -- dividend. Again, by no ...
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Why might a cross currency swap from EUR into USD have higher CVA than a cross currency swap from USD into EUR?

I was having a discussion with a colleague in the industry, who mentioned in passing that CVA on a cross currency swap from EUR into USD (pay EUR) is always higher than if paying USD and receiving EUR....
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130 views

FX Forwards collateral and discounting

What is the market convention for discounting the future cash flows of FX forwards? In particular, I would be interested to know what discounting curves are used for both collateralised and not ...
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1answer
416 views

resettable/MtM cross currency swaps

I am trying to understand the mechanics of resettable xccy basis swaps and put together a numerical example. I'd like to know if 1) periodic interest payments are calculated on the original notional ...
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83 views

How are total return swaps quoted?

A) spread $s$ only. B) spread subtracted from the funding, e.g. LIBOR, rate, i.e. $(r-s)$. ?
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1answer
107 views

Currency swap terminology

With reference to cross currency swaps, what does it mean to receive the basis? "Demand from Japanese institutions to receive basis (USD funding) increased due to emergency dollar demand due to ...
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163 views

AUD funding rates

I am looking into into AUD rates and I am a little confused. I tried to summarise below my doubts. FX swap basis (difference between AUD FX swap implied rate and AUD OIS rate). Before covid-19 it has ...
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2answers
118 views

Method of comparing two option pricing models?

I am currently writing a small paper comparing the Black-Scholes formula to the Bachelier model. However I am wondering how exactly I should compare the two models? Obviously I am comparing the prices ...
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63 views

Cost of shorting currencies

I thought cost of hedging/going short on a currency with a forward was given by F/S-1 but it seems the author states 0.25% (see below). Am I missing anything (transaction costs, balance sheet costs, ...
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145 views

Carry trade question

Usually carry trades involve borrowing in a low yield currency and invest in a high yield currency. For example, I borrow dollars and invest in Brazilian real. I then use a rolling FX swap to hedge ...
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1answer
116 views

Pricing of $(S(T_0)-S(T))^+$

Problem: Consider a new derivative that at time $T$ pays $Y =(S(T_0) − S(T))^+$ where $0 < T_0 < T$ is a fixed date. (i) Show that the arbitrage-free of Y at time $t = T_0$ is given by $\pi_{...
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91 views

Japan benchmark rates

Can you please confirm on the following? The difference between TONA (also called TONAR), JPY Libor, TIBOR is that: JPY Libor, TIBOR are based on quotes from panel banks. The difference between them ...
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1answer
55 views

Risk-Neutral probability deduction [closed]

Could anyone show me how to get the second row equation from the first row equation please? For each letter, $p$ is the risk-neutral probability in the risk-neutral world, $u$ is the up factor for the ...
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Brazil FX market “cupom cambial” [duplicate]

I am trying to understand the role of cupom cambial (onshore dollar rate) in relation to the BCB swaps which are domestic NDF settled in real. "The cupom cambial is priced in basis points as an ...
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Non attainable claim - Incomplete market

I am wondering whether there is a standard procedure to find a non attainable (i.e. non replicable) asset in an incomplete market. As an example, let us have the following market ($B = (B^1, B^2, B^3)$...
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40 views

Hypothetic derivative that absorbs underlying volatility

Market participants are usually assumed to be risk-averse and striving to improve the Sharpe ratios of their portfolios. Thus, if we have an asset A, which is expected to return between \$900 and \$...
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Future forward convexity adjustment as the expected profit from reinvesting margin payments?

Having looked at the formula for the convexity adjustment as a function of the covariance between rates accruing till maturity and asset price, I have an intuition that the difference between fair ...

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