Questions tagged [discounting]

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1answer
121 views

If I have the present value of an amortizing bond's cashflows, how do I figure out price?

Say that I correctly compute the sum of cash flows of a given bond. How does this relate to the quoted price that most people understand? IE, based on the sum of cashflows I derive a PV of 5,000,000 ...
3
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2answers
263 views

NPV of Future Investment: Two Approaches?

Suppose I expect the return on my investment to follow some upward trend: $R_t = R_0 e^{\mu t}$, where $\mu > 0$. If I wish to compute the present value of these inflows, I would have $$ \int_o^\...
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2answers
112 views

Replacing USD OIS discounting based on FED Funds Rate with SOFR discounting

Slightly related to my other question (The exact mechanics of USD OIS Swaps: replacement of USD Libor by SOFR) but nonetheless, this is a separate topic: US banks fund themselves via EFFR (Effective ...
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1answer
35 views

QuantLib Compounded vs CompoundedThenSimple and Simple vs SimpleThenCompounded

I was experimenting on a FixedRateBond on QuantLib python port and have a question on the use of Compounded vs. CompoundedThenSimple methods of discounting. I am using the FixedRateBond.dirtyPrice() ...
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1answer
55 views

Using Integrals With Internal Rate of Return? [closed]

I'm taking a Calculus 2 course this Fall, and for my honors project, I will be using the IRR function. My professor is requesting that I figure out a way to use an integral with the IRR. The cash flow ...
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0answers
61 views

Why Bloomberg USD swap curve (YCSW0023 Index) changes last month?? and why put a Financial commodity future into this curve?

The Bloomberg USD swap curve (YCSW0023 Index) had changed and bloomberg put a Financial commodity future. Why changes? What the factor make this changes? Why bloomberg put into a financial commodity ...
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4answers
126 views

Expected return rate greater than required return rate [closed]

I am a beginner to finance, today I found a question looks very simple that I am not quite sure about it. Question: Given I am paid \$50,000 now, growing at $6\%$ per year for a total of 10 years, ...
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1answer
92 views

How to find OIS discounting factors from OIS swap rates. Please explain with example

Suppose I have the following OIS Swap rates: 1 year OIS Swap: 0.36% 2 year OIS Swap: 0.37% 3 year OIS Swap: 0.38% 4 year OIS Swap: 0.40% From these, how do I get the OIS Discounting factors for ...
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0answers
38 views

Quantlib-SWIG Python: impliedHazardRate requires “warm” discountcurve

I am getting different results from the CreditDefaultSwap().impliedHazardRate() method, depending on whether the discount curve passed is "cold" i.e. just created ...
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2answers
130 views

What is the standard risk free rate used to discount options?

Apologies if this has been asked before - but I wanted to clarify what the market standard was for discounting options i.e. what is the "risk free" rate actually used by quants and traders? I haven't ...
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0answers
27 views

Bond CSA hedging risk

If I have a CSA that contains say GBP Gilts and GBP cash, how do i hedge the risk that the gilt funding cost goes up. Lets say my portfolio is > 10 years. Let's assume I have a discount curve that ...
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0answers
78 views

SOFR Discounting & Price Alignment Transition

CME Group is planning to migrate the discounting to SOFR from Effective Fed Funds Rate (EFFR). Below is the link to their article: https://www.cmegroup.com/education/articles-and-reports/sofr-price-...
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79 views

SOFR Term Structure and Discounting

Recently I have been going through a lot of documents for SOFR (Secured Overnight Financing Rate). For Debt Markets (loans, etc.) - I understand that SOFR Forward looking term terms rates are ...
0
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1answer
47 views

Why do increasing spot rates have to be equal to or larger than the corresponding par rates?

Definitions Spot rate: the interest rate applied to a given spot investment to be repaid at maturity, as a single cash flow. Par rate: the interest rate such that the PV of the cash flows (lets say ...
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1answer
61 views

discounting currency swap

I need help with a currency swap problem: Remaining life: 15 months. Exchanging interest at 10% on £20 million in Sterlings for interest 6% on $30 million in Dollars. If swap were negotiated today, ...
0
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1answer
231 views

Find out the effective monthly discount rate for a 10% annual discount rate

First time posting. Apologies in advance if this is not the right question for this forum. If it is, please let me know if I should reformat this in a particular way. If it isn't, would it be more ...
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2answers
162 views

Discounting for XVA

I was thinking that since XVA is on uncollaterized exposure, we should be using LIBOR discounting environment. Why don't we do that?
1
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1answer
77 views

Arbitrage when discounting and forward computation is done with different curves

I notice that (equity derivatives) trades generally are priced with different forward curve and discounting curve, which clearly lead to arbitrage. Is this arbitrage value too small to be ignored? How ...
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2answers
71 views

Interest rate calculation [closed]

The task: With what interest rate given 2000 Euros after 2 years and 3000 Euros after 4 years, the actual value will be equal 4000 Euros. This task sounds confusing for me, I tried to calculate, but ...
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3answers
112 views

Formula for the discounted payoff of a digital option

In "Heard on the Street" it states that the expected discounted payoff of a digital option is $$H\exp^{-r(T-t)}N(d_2)$$ where $H$ is the payoff of the option, the exponential is the discounting. ...
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3answers
1k views

Calculating the Discount Margin for a FRN

I am working with a programming case where there are two methods of calculating YTM / discount margin for bonds and FRNs. Both methods use an iterative approach to find a rate / spread that ...
1
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1answer
91 views

Discounting in multicurve environment

Given that the longest tenor for LIBOR in 12M, what rate do we use to discount a cash flow due in, say, 18 months? Some suggest that we use the 12M rates for 1 year and 2 year to interpolate, but ...
1
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1answer
200 views

discount factor, zero rates, zero curve from BBG

How can I calculate the discount factor for row 1? I would do $$ \frac{1}{(1+ 2.13763/100)^{(90/360)}} = 0.994726197703956 $$ My ultimate goal is to reproduce the Zero Rates. Any hints welcome. ...
3
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1answer
762 views

Bootstrap ESTER and SOFR curves with Quantlib Python

Is it possible to bootstrap the new ESTER and SOFR term structures in Quantlib? More in general, does the process work as the usual one? Given these are simple indices that are published on a daily ...
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2answers
526 views

What is the difference between a cleared interest rate swap and a OTC interest rate swap with collateral in theory

I understand the aspect that central clearing reduced counterparty risks. From the valuation side, am I right that cash flows for both trades will be discounted at the OIS rate? The party that holds ...
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0answers
40 views

Discounted Costs [closed]

Suppose we were given a discounted cost of £12,956. This was generated using a discount factor of 3.5% and a time-horizon of 45 years. Is it possible to obtain what the non-discounted cost is today?...
3
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1answer
84 views

Proof that we can price any derivative as the discounted value of its expected return under the risk neutral measure

I am reading a paper which tries to convey the intuition behind the Black-Scholes pricing formula. In that paper, the author states the following two things without proof, and I would like to know why ...
3
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2answers
201 views

Correct Discount Curve for Exchange Traded (Centrally Cleared) Products

What's the correct discount curve to use for exchange traded products? Would these be discounted at the OIS rate (because of the central clearing house)? E.g. the E-Mini S&P500 Future @ CME: I'm ...
2
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1answer
174 views

Recommended Instruments (and sources) for Constructing Money Market Yield Curves

What instruments are the current industry recommendations for constructing money-market yield curves in some major currencies? The switch after the crisis to multi-curve methods is well documented on ...
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1answer
77 views

Can someone explain to me the intuition behind the discount factor for this simple payoff? [closed]

Let's say you enter into a contract today in which in time t, you receive the difference between the underlying stock price and 100. Denote the stock price as S. Why is today's value of such a ...
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1answer
483 views

Why use the risk-free rate for discounting in a risk neutral world?

I am reading Options, Futures, and other derivatives by John C. Hull. In the chapter on Binomial trees, he remarks: A risk-neutral world has two features that simplify the pricing of derivatives: ...
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1answer
746 views

Mark-to-market cross-currency basis swap valuation

I'm looking to replicate the EUR vs USD cross-currency basis curve that Bloomberg outputs (EUR.OIS collateralized in USD). I understand that Bloomberg is currently using the mark-to-market ...
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0answers
164 views

Why don't we build the discounting curve and projection curve from bonds

We know that we always build the discounting curve and projection curve from money market instruments, index Futures, interest rate swap and OIS Libor swap (depends on the period). But why don't we ...
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0answers
24 views

Source for derivation of acquisition price for given IRR and cash flows

Does anyone know a quotable source - book/academic or practitioner's paper - that derives the acquisiton price for a target firm when the buyer's desired IRR and all cash flows over time of the target ...
1
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1answer
55 views

Continuously Compounded rate less than a discretely compounded rate [closed]

I'm looking at an example in a well known book and its saying "consider an interest rate that is quoted as 10% per annum with semi annual compounding" The book puts 10% as the semi-annual rate, ...
1
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1answer
188 views

Bond discounting conventions

during the preparation for my thesis, I've come across some strange discrepancies between literature and the information I've been taught. It comes down to the proper way of discounting cash-flows of ...
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0answers
37 views

Monthly Discount Rate in NPV Calculation [closed]

I have been offered 2 payment methods as I was buying some tools for a company I work for. I need your help to assess the best method. Here it goes, Total cost is $100 and I don't want to pay it all ...
4
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1answer
204 views

Discounted asset price is martingale in BS model

I want to verify that the discounted stock price process $\mathrm{e}^{-r(T-t)}V(S_t,t)$ is a martingale in the BS-model. Using Ito's formula and the BS-PDE I get that $$ \mathrm{d}\mathrm{e}^{-r(T-t)}...
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0answers
131 views

What is the use of undiscounted Futures/Option Prices

Reading the great book of Gatheral on Vol Surfaces (link) I can't help but notice that throughout he uses undiscounted option prices (though he obviously never assumed rates to be zero). See e.g. ...
1
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1answer
465 views

ESTER replacement for EONIA/EURIBOR

Does anybody know what impact the replacement of EONIA with ESTER ( Euro Short TErm Rate ) will have on discounting existing or new derivatives once EONIA will be restricted as of Jan 2020? I'm ...
0
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2answers
157 views

Calculation VaR on long term period

I'm calculating VaR numbers from historical data for a single instrument (it's plain vanilla, not a derivative) and receive such variables: I could provide necessary data, and formulas but I guess ...
1
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1answer
100 views

Macaulay's Duration with Zero Rates

The definition of Macaulay's Duration is the weighted average maturity of cash flows and is calculated as- $$D_{mac}=\frac{\sum_ttPV(C_t)}{V}$$ where $PV(C_t)$ is the present value of the cash flow ...
2
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0answers
48 views

Calibration of stock's intrinsic value under the gordon model

Assume we have the constant growth Gordon model, for a stock paying dividend $D$,Earnings per Share $EPS$, annual growth rate $g=ROE*(1-\frac{D}{EPS})$ and discount rate $r$. Then: $IV=\frac{D*(1+g)}...
4
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1answer
3k views

Cheapest-to-deliver (CTD) discount curve

Can someone explain, in layman's terms, the mechanics (the algorithm steps) of the construction of the discount curve in the case when the CSA allows the posting party to choose a currency (from a ...
3
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0answers
735 views

Properties of Geometric Brownian Motion Integrated w.r.t. Time (i.e., distribution of a Yor Process)

Let $S_t$ be a process which follows a Geometric Brownian Motion: $\frac{dS_\tau}{S_\tau} = \mu \,d\tau + \sigma \,dW_\tau$ By Ito's lemma, we have: $S_T = S_t e^{(\mu-{\sigma^2 \over 2})(T-t) + \...
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1answer
105 views

In DCF, why is the discount rate interpreted as the minimum rate of return?

Is there an intuitive explanation of why, in DCF modeling, the discount rate should be interpreted as the minimum rate of return? This doesn't make sense to me because I think of the NPV as "what all ...
1
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3answers
242 views

Does the traditional NPV formula of a cashflow double count risk?

Consider a cash flow stream of a single payment (1 period away). Its net present value is typically presented as $$ \text{NPV} = {\text{EV}(\text{Cash Flow}) \over 1 + d} \tag{1} $$ Here $d$ is ...
0
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1answer
796 views

What discount rate for uncollateralized cross currency swaps?

To expand on this question, what happens if the uncollateralized swap is of a cross currency variety? Ignoring any xVAs, it's unclear which currency would best determine the discount rate: a) we ...
2
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2answers
238 views

Is an options implied dividends DCF model consistent with risk neutral/arbitrage-free valuation?

We're talking about how we price every financial instrument: by discounting the payoff, that is, we take future cash flows and we discount them by a proper rate which takes into account the risk of ...
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1answer
3k views

Bloomberg terminal swap zero curve calculation

I would like to ask about swap zero curve calculation algorithm by Bloomberg terminal. This is a plain vanilla CZK interest rate swap, fixing the Prague IBOR. My task is to calculate zero rates from ...