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Questions tagged [distribution]

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0answers
27 views

Why Jarque - Bera values are so high? Is this normal? [closed]

Please advise whether the following is a normal occurrence: In the above table I have Autocorrelation at lag1, LB, Skew, Kurt and JB test. I have noticed that whenever the value of Kurt increases, ...
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1answer
66 views

Distribution of simple returns vs logreturns

I understand that stock prices are conditionally modeled using a log normal distribution by the relationship $ y_t/y_{t−1}∼logN(μ_{daily},σ^2_{daily})$ $y_t∼logN(log(y_{t-1})+μ_{daily},σ^2_{...
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2answers
89 views

Compare two distributions for forecasting returns

Let's imagine that we have two separate models, both used to forecast the return for the next period. Both models are estimated everyday, and both models outputs a probability distribution. How can we ...
2
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0answers
21 views

Convolution of generalized hyperbolic distribution

I have a question concerning the convolution of generalized hyperbolic distributions. Proposition 6.13 of McNeil, Embrechts, Frey states the following: If $X$ has a $d$-dimensional generalized ...
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0answers
74 views

Alternative Method for Determining Option-Implied pdf

As I am refining a pricing model to incorporate skew, and not just ATM volatilities, I need to create random realizations of the underlying consistent with the skew-implied pdf. When searching, one ...
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0answers
30 views

How does CVaR change when the mean and variance of the loss distribution change?

I have a CVaR constraint in my optimization problem and I want to change the mean and standard deviation of loss distribution during each iteration. How can I get the new CVaR based on the old CVaR ...
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0answers
21 views

Sample distribution of cross-sectional statistics of returns

Currently doing an application of VaR on sample of industry portfolios in the US. I have a matrix of $n$ industry portfolios with $m$ time-series observations. I calculate cross-sectionally (for each ...
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1answer
67 views

How to price a barrier using monte carlo when return distribution is not iid?

this question is actually related to set the stop loss and stop return. Say after a liquidity shock, I want to place two stops, one being stop loss and another being stop return. If I use, say 10 ...
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1answer
64 views

Computing Montecarlo VaR for a single asset

I'm trying to understand the procedure to compute the Value-at-Risk for a single asset by implementing the Montecarlo technique. Here it follows the procedure step-by-step in 5 points: selecting the ...
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0answers
145 views

Arbitrage free smoothing of volatility smile - cubic spline - implementation procedure

I am studying the paper Arbitrage-Free Smoothing of the Implied Volatility Surface, from Matthias R. Fengler (https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/6978470.pdf). The problem I want to solve is much simpler ...
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1answer
133 views

Theoretical distribution of (geometric) Brownian motion (with drift)

I am working on a simulation study which focuses on both the Brownian motion with drift (1) and the geometric Brownian motion (2). I denote them by $X_t$. What are the theoretical distributions of ...
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2answers
101 views

Verifying that the extreme value copula is indeed a copula

Given the extreme value copula as defined in Schölzel/Friederichs (2008), how does one verify that $\frac{\partial C(u_1, u_2)}{\partial u_1} \geq 0?$ For the LHS, I have $$\exp\left[\log(u_1u_2)A\...
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1answer
86 views

Showing the Gaussian shift theorem for bivariate case

I was reading about the Gaussian shift theorem in "An Introduction to Exotic Option Pricing" by Peter Buchen and came across a question that I can't seem to figure. In the book, he uses F(Z) (a ...
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0answers
30 views

Finding the distribution and moments of returns with GARCH models (in R if possible)

I understand the GARCH type models and I know how to fit a model to a time series. But, there is a paper which calculates the moments of the distribution of returns (Variance, Skewness, and Kurtosis) ...
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0answers
54 views

Probability of outlier events for laplace distribution

I've read that the laplace distribution is better for forecasting purposes than the normal distribution due to it better accounting for fat tails. However, when I run the numbers in matlab, laplace ...
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0answers
35 views

Bootstrapping to Judge the Fit of a Sampled Return Distribution

Consider the following: I have sampled yearly stock returns from a specified distribution. What I want to do is compare how well my sampled distribution fits the empirical distribution of yearly ...
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0answers
38 views

History to use to fit a gaussian mixture distribution?

I have to model the distribution of past returns for several time horizon using a gaussian mixture distribution. I first build my time series of past returns thanks to a rolling sum of my past log ...
2
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0answers
64 views

$\int_{0}^1W_x(t)dW_y(t)/(\int_{0}^1W_x^2(t)dt)^{1/2}$ normally-distributed?

I have came across the following stochastic integrals: $$\frac{\int_{0}^1W_x(t)dW_y(t)}{(\int_{0}^1W_x^2(t)dt)^{1/2}}$$ which was claimed to be standard normally distributed ($W_x$ and $W_y$ are ...
5
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2answers
79 views

Approach to add scenarios to OpRisk loss distribution

There is quite a lot of literature on OpRisk modelling. My question focuses on a loss distribution approach (LDA). Let's look at a basic model. A Poisson-distributed $N$ and loss sizes $X_i$ and from ...
3
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0answers
87 views

Bivariate risk neutral distribution through copula

I want to build a bivariate risk-neutral distribution from two liquid assets (A and B) through the use of a copula. As A and B are liquid, I have the marginal distributions from the market. All I have ...
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0answers
17 views

Question about Paul Kupiec's “concentrated Bond loss rate distribution”

I wonder if anyone here has read the following paper by Paul Kupiec in which he approximates a loss rate distribution for a portfolio composed of (possibly) concentrated bond positions. https://www....
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1answer
97 views

Why should we care if the “squares of returns are independently distributed over time” to choose an adequate model of the distribution of returns?

In a Time Series Book by Hashem Pesaran, he mentions that there are a number of issues that need to be addressed in order to choose an adequate model for predicting asset returns. I understand the ...
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2answers
223 views

Log normal price simulation

I'm trying to figure out a spreadsheet I have which simulates 50000 returns in excel using the following function: LOGNORM.INV(RAND(),0,0.35)-1 Question: How ...
0
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1answer
57 views

Quantile with periodic investing

Short Version Can I get a quantile of such an expression? \begin{equation} \sum_{k=1}^{n} A_k\exp(\mathcal{N}(t_k\mu-\sigma\sqrt{t_k}/2,\sigma))) \end{equation} I know I can do it for one part of ...
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1answer
248 views

Quantile normal and lognormal

Let's assume we have a normal distribution $X\sim \mathcal{N}(\mu,\sigma^2)$. In a normal distribution the quantile can be calculated as follows: \begin{equation} \Phi_X ^{-1}(p)=\mu +\sigma {\sqrt {...
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1answer
239 views

Intensity of Exponential Distribution

How do I show the following: Suppose $\lambda=-\frac{S'(x)}{S(x)}$, where $S(x)=1-F(x)$ is survival probability. Show that $\lambda$ is the intensity of the exponential distribution with cdf $F(x)=1-e^...
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1answer
130 views

Why/When local volatility is preferred over implied distribution sampling?

Let's say we have an option whose payoff is path dependent (let's say it's asian option with observations every month). Then why these are usually priced with local vol instead of sampling from ...
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1answer
221 views

Distribution of realized volatility for stock prices from a GBM

If you generate random stock price paths according to a GBM with daily increments, what will be the distribution of the realized volatility? Assume that the realized volatility is measured over daily ...
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1answer
69 views

How to compute Pr(S>100) when S follows Geometric Brownian Motion?

I have been trying to resolve this problem, under (b), but I cannot find the correct answer. For i=1, my ultimate answer (P=1) deviates from the correct answer (P=0.7580). Please let me know whether ...
1
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1answer
167 views

Question on implied vol (surface) and strikes

there have been loads of papers on skews ATM / OTM, volatility premium and such. Lots of explanations for why iv is different on same stock with different strikes focused on preference of informed ...
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1answer
43 views

How to simulate the exponential law over an interval of the form [0,T]?

How do you simulate an exponential random variable over an interval $[0, T]$ with $T > 0$?
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2answers
1k views

What the implied distribution really is?

From volatility surfaces we have a implied distribution of $S_T$. This distribution is the real world distribution or this is a risk neutral distribution?
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0answers
264 views

Probability Integral Transform: Standardisation

I've been applying the probability integral transform as shown here to standardise date for input into a neural network: https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/592076/mapping-cdfs-to-each-other?...
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0answers
146 views

Expected shortfall of stable distribution by Stoyanov

I've been working on calculating parametric ES assuming the returns follow Paretian stable law. Given the four parameters - $\alpha, \beta,\sigma,\mu$- Stoyanov introduces closed form solution of the ...
1
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1answer
451 views

How to simulate asset returns using student t?

I am currently trying to simulate an asset return using the student-t distribution, but I can't find how I should do this. I began with the Geometric Brownian motion and just changed in order that ...
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0answers
82 views

Interpretation of Skew and Kurtoisis - strategy backtesting

I am working on my dissertation and i would like to provide a nice interpretation of two tables which i will present below. I have 10 portfolio buckets which i sort on 6 different attributes. One of ...
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0answers
66 views

student-t asset path

I am trying to simulate an asset path based on a t-distribution. I found a lot of ressources and the fact that it will be difficult to do a path. But now I changed my Geometric Brownian Motion ...
2
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1answer
131 views

What is the limiting distribution of loss portfolio?

I am working through this paper on Vasicek's portfolio loss distribution. On page 3 he mentions that by the law of large numbers, $$\lim_{n\to\infty}\sum_{k=0}^{\lfloor nx \rfloor} \binom{n}{k}s^k(1-...
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1answer
75 views

Calculating VaR of an Incomplete Distribution

I am currently completing a multiple choice question that has stumped me. An asset has its price and its corresponding probability described as: 100, 0, -50, -70 and -90 with probabilities 50%, 12%,...
4
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1answer
356 views

Use NIG distribution to model stock path

I would like to use Monte Carlo simulation to price some options. First I use standard approach where stock price is discribed by the following process: $$S_T = S_0\exp \left[(r - 0.5\sigma^2)T + \...
2
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3answers
171 views

Distribution of pay-off of an exotic option

Can any assumptions be made about the pay-off of an exotic option? For example, might we say the distribution of the pay-off a vanilla option would be Normal? I have built a valuation tool that ...
2
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1answer
263 views

How do I get Value-at-Risk for a GED distribution in R?

I need to calculate parametric Value-at-Risk using a GARCH model assuming a GED distribution. How can calculate it in R? thank you
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3answers
57 views

find the qth lower tail quantile

I have daily currency returns. For each month, I have to find the return associated to the 5% lower tail quantile for each currency (the lowest return or the second lowest return). Could you please ...
3
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1answer
1k views

Density plot of the skew-t distribution

I am using the sgt package in R to recreate the plot from Hansen's paper ( available here http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/~bhansen/papers/ier_94.pdf on page 8) using random ...
2
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0answers
109 views

Gaussian Copula with t margins

I am trying to fit a Gaussian Copula with t margins to my data (log returns of two stocks). It has already worked for a Gaussian Copula with normal margins with: normcopula_dist = mvdc(copula=...
5
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2answers
617 views

Is it possible to deal with non-normal distribution in Black-Litterman model?

Suppose that I know that the normality assumption about my data is unrealistic (as it is very frequently): is it possible to apply any distribution that I judge the right one to the Black-Litterman ...
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1answer
256 views

Creating the histogram for the distribution of the portfolio returns

Given log returns for some stocks $A$ and $B$, which are the constituents of our hypothetical portfolio in equal weights, how does one actually come up with a distribution of the log returns of the ...
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3answers
509 views

Normal Inverse Gaussian distribution - any consensus on an accurate quantile function?

I am making use of the Normal Inverse Gaussian distribution in my work to model underlying interest rate implied volatility risk drivers. What is particularly nice about this distribution for my ...
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0answers
253 views

Large deviations theory and extreme value theory

I'll enter into details of both, sooner or later, but for the moment I'm concerned about the differences (and relationships, if any) between these two theories. Can someone give me a brief, but still ...
1
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1answer
1k views

Calculate VaR for a liabilty taking a exponential distribution?

An insurance company faces the liability loss off $L = \begin{cases} 0, & \mbox{with probability } 0.75 \\ Z, & \mbox{with probability } 0.25\end{cases}$ where $Z\sim Exp(\mu)$. I want to ...