Questions tagged [equities]

Shares of stock traded in a stock market. Equities represent the residual claim or interest of the most junior class of investors in assets, after all liabilities are paid.

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Why does not index (S&P500, NASDAQ, Dow Jones, etc), use liquidity?

Stock indexes such as SP500, NASDAQ, Dow Jones, etc all try to capture the temperature of the market. If the market cap of the companies in the market increase, the index increase. But, imagine a ...
Orvar Korvar's user avatar
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TRS and leveraged etf

To get the leveraged return of an index daily, leveraged ETF uses TRS to get that leveraged. Yet I don't really understand how it is used and who is the counterparty of that TRS. So, first you have ...
option_vol's user avatar
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Future vol is bigger than realized vol

One strategy that I've seen on Leveraged ETF is shorting both the BULL and BEAR leveraged ETF to exploit the decay when volatility is high. Though I am wondering how an entry signal is triggered for ...
ilovebagels's user avatar
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Create a turnover based stock index, for non liquid stocks?

I want to create an stock index that use the turnover, and not the price. How to do that? The problem I am trying to solve, is that if one stock has a very low trading volume, but the stock price is ...
Orvar Korvar's user avatar
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SDP and riskless profit

I am trying to understand the Single Dealer Platform model that a lot of banks and prop shop are launching. So I am not sure to understand really how a Single Dealer Platform works. From what I ...
option_vol's user avatar
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Exchange redirecting order

I was reading about exchange to understand better how they execute my market-orders. So let's say I am sending a market order to buy one share of AAPL to NYSE. When NYSE gets my order he looks at the ...
missing_name's user avatar
1 vote
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short-term statistical factor models for equities with different trading hours

I wonder if there are existing theory/literature about estimating a short-term statistical factor models for equities with different trading hours. For example if we are estimating a universe with US ...
CuriousMind's user avatar
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What are some effective and easily implementable volatility smile/skew smoothing models?

Inspired by another post on Bakshi et al. (1997), the paper talks about the feasibility of option pricing models, particularly the SVSI-J variant. I would like to ask the Quant community if there are ...
KaiSqDist's user avatar
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Does switching between Bond and Equity closely tracking Interest rate generate more returns?

Is there an evidence to suggest that we buy bond during high interest regime and when interest rates goes down , we sell the bond and buy Equity Index .. Repeat this by closely following the central ...
Kavinkumar R's user avatar
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Why didn't LMT stock spike and NOC dip in 1990 due to the F-22 raptor competition?

Disclaimer, I am a newbie at finance! I have been tracking the NOC and LMT stock prices and I have a few questions. Both companies seem to be moving together in terms of stock prices. I would expect ...
George Fanaras's user avatar
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Calculating PIN or PIN-like factor without having intraday / tick data

I am looking for a method of estimating PIN (probability of informed trading) for US equities without having access to intraday / tick data, but using daily OHLC instead. I imagine its impossible but ...
helloimgeorgia's user avatar
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Autocallables - valuation/modelling/booking

Recently heard a view on how one should model/book autocallable swaps (in its basic form where there is a series of observation dates on which the product autocalls and there is exposure to the ...
eMe's user avatar
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Autocall Selling Process [closed]

I'm new in structured products and I need some help for understanding some stuff on autocall. When a client gives his money to the bank for investing in an Autocall, this money goes in a ZCB and in ...
Simon's user avatar
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2 votes
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Markout PnL why looking in the past [closed]

Most of the time to analyze a strategy people will take all the trades and look at the PnL a certain markouts. Yet I don't understand why so many people look at negative markouts? What can infer from ...
option_vol's user avatar
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Cross corridor var swap

How should I think about replicating a cross corridor variance swap like breaking into strips of calls and puts and an over hedge that I can rebalance at some frequency? Given the earnings move, I can ...
exotics101's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
173 views

How to interpret the turnover formula?

How would one interpret the below turnover formula ignoring the average from each time period i.e., what is the meaning of the term inside the brackets? Reference: Empirical Asset Pricing via Machine ...
PrinceZard's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
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In which context do hedge funds use the Gauss Markov Theorem?

Hedge Funds really like asking questions about linear regression during interviews. Especially about the properties of the OLS. But I don't understand in which context this is used. For example the ...
confucius_is_confused's user avatar
5 votes
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What is the current state of the art method to predict the equity risk premium one month ahead?

I am aware of Goyal, Welch and Zafirov's paper A Comprehensive 2022 Look at the Empirical Performance of Equity Premium Prediction that seems to imply there is nothing one can do to predict the return ...
volcompt's user avatar
2 votes
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questions after reading the article by knuteson

I recently read this article by Knuteson and some thought/questions arose. So I was wondering if anyone read it or wants to read it and can comment on a few statements-questions below. I could ...
mark leeds's user avatar
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Rigorous formula for adjusted close price

I'm a mathematician who is new to the stock market, and I'm hoping to shine a rigorous light on a simple example of adjusting close prices for, say, dividends. Let time $t$ represent today. Say that ...
Andrew's user avatar
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Average correlations of stock returns

Say I had a pool of companies (specifically the Latin American Countries). The task was to work out the 'Correlation coefficient between the returns of any 2 companies selected from "different ...
Bossman Joestar's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
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How to calculate holding period return of a long-short strategy?

I have daily close prices of two stocks, A and B. Suppose that we long stock A and short stock B. Assume that we do the long-short every day and hold that portfolio for some days. How to calculate ...
user546106's user avatar
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How do I measure the "dispersions" of a group of stock returns

I have $n$ stock return time series $X_1, X_2, ... X_n$. I want to measure how much they have "dispersed" over time. i.e. are they moving "more together" in 2023, comparing to 2022....
Matt Frank's user avatar
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Combining trading signals (equity long/short strategy)

Currently, I have developed three separate trading strategies on equity securities. All involve taking long and short positions in the top and bottom decile with respect to some measure (say, a ...
StackExchangeDisplayName's user avatar
1 vote
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What is the purpose of a floating interest rate leg on an autocallable equity swap transaction?

I understand that the purpose of the equity leg is to hedge the issuers exposure under the note but I don't understand why the buyer of an autocallable equity swap pays a fixed fee at the beginning of ...
Robert Smith's user avatar
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Is it possible to exchange one stock for another without cash as an intermediary?

According to my research, it is possible to exchange one stock for another without selling to cash and then buying the other. The process is known as a "stock-for-stock" or "share-for-...
anonim's user avatar
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Convertible Bond Option - Yield analyzis

The following problem can be understood as an extension/modification of the textbook example of Hull (Options, Futures and other derivatives, chapter 27.4, 9th Edition), which is related to ...
PAS's user avatar
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Option-like behaviour of momentum strategy

this may come as rather vague question, since I do not have something very exact issue on my mind. Nevertheless, I think this is an interesting question and must have been thought by some other people ...
blizzard16's user avatar
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Relationship Between the Equity Funding Curve and Equity Forward Curve

am trying to understand the core concepts of Equity Forwards Curve, Funding Curve and yield Curves (most sources online seem to focus on Interest rate related examples, so any sources for equity ...
ESN's user avatar
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Bound on path length of a stock price

Consider a time series $(S_i)$ representing a stock price (say close prices of one minute candles). Let $\Delta$ be a quantization step (could be the price step in the strike prices of the ...
TryingHardToBecomeAGoodPrSlvr's user avatar
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Marginal effect of asset in a strategy

Im trying to develop a stastical arbitrage strategy that depends on a universe of assets and in a brief way, they replicate some factor(s), index(s), etf(s), etc, and then trade residuals. So, after ...
NICOLÁS ZANNI's user avatar
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Purpose of equity listing?

I have a simple question on US stock market: what is the purpose of listing a stock to a specific exchange given that it can be traded on multiple exchanges? For example, apple stock (AAPL) is listed ...
beginner's user avatar
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Should I resolve factor collinearity before hedging?

Goal: I want to run a portfolio, daily or weekly rebalanced, with a target idio vol %. Thus I will be market neutral, sector neutral and maintain some style exposure at 70-80% idio overall. Okay, this ...
Arjun P.'s user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
69 views

Risk adjusted returns for a portfolio relative to CAPM

This is very likely a simple question. When following Lewellen (2015) (open access here), how should I compute alphas for portfolio returns relative to the CAPM and FF3? Do we simply subtract the (...
Julien Maas's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
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FM regressions for size groups when examining a cross section of expected stock returns

When doing FM regressions for size groups similar to Lewellen (2015) (open access here), should I obtain the cross sectional rolling return window betas using only the size group? (E.g only use large ...
Julien Maas's user avatar
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Power-utility function for calculating Certainty equivalent

I have a question regarding how i should calculate 3.2-3.4, currently studying for an exam. What i don't get is how to acctually derive the certainty equivalent from the expected utility of gross ...
Jens's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
266 views

Why stock beta is not equal to its index weight?

Index is a linear combination of stock prices with known weights. In case index is equally weighted, the weights are fixed. Beta measures stock sensitivity to index - by how much stock moves when ...
Kreol's user avatar
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If investors are risk-neutral, should the (equity) risk premium be zero?

I looked up ChatGPT and they stated that the (equity) risk premium should be zero for a risk-neutral world. The definition of a risk-neutral investor is that one is indifferent between additional or ...
KaiSqDist's user avatar
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1 vote
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If there was a way to back out implied volatility (IV) from a stock, would it be the same as the IV backed out from an option on that same stock?

I know that it is not possible to back out an IV for a stock, because the concept of IV is based on a model with underlying assumptions applied to pricing an option. I was thinking of why IV is ...
KaiSqDist's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
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Why does cost of borrow have anything to do with the equity forward price?

By non-arbitrage, you buy the stock and hold it to the delivery date of the forward, only cost of funding (of cash) and equity dividend would be involved in the equity forward calculation. Where does ...
Peaceful's user avatar
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A term to compare 2 stocks based on simultaneous trending and ranging characteristics

There a 2 stocks called A and B. We take a look at the daily chart of both stocks over the last 1 year. On 90% of the days A and B both trended or at least one of A or B trended. On 10% of days both ...
FawaMop's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
396 views

Should I use common equity or total equity for book value? (when replicating Lewellen's 2015 paper on a cross section of expected stock returns)

I'd hereby would like to ask if any of you know whether I should use common equity or the total equity value, when computing monthly BM ratio's as done by Lewellen is his 2015 paper on a cross section ...
Julien Maas's user avatar
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53 views

Calibration of Covariance Matrix for a Cumulative Period Return

I am trying to compute optimized weights (minimum-variance portfolio) for a cumulative return over a period (weekly or fortnightly). In a daily return setting, it is quite simple, I just compute a ...
KaiSqDist's user avatar
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Do Dividend Stocks Offer Better Resilience During Market P/E Contraction?

I'm interested in how stocks with higher dividend yields perform during periods of market P/E contraction. Specifically, I've observed that (so far I am working on the models): Market-wide P/E ...
johndonym's user avatar
1 vote
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33 views

Seeking a Model to Extrapolate Locate Fees for Short Selling in Absence of Historical Data

I'm in the process of developing an automated stock trading algorithm, with short selling being a significant part of the strategy. A key factor in deciding whether to short a stock is the associated &...
David's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
437 views

Why do we adjust the drift in the geometric brownian motion

I am building a monte carlo based on the GMB, and I am having a hard time understanding why we subtract 1/2 variance from the drift. If I have a drift of 12% and a volatility of 50%, that would give ...
John's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
266 views

Compounding vs Annualizing Returns in a Portfolio Optimization Context

This might be a rather basic question that might be closed... but I can't for the life of me understand why in many Google search results the annualization of daily returns is done like this: r_yearly ...
KaiSqDist's user avatar
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equities hedging betas for a cross-sectional risk model

This question is on equities risk models. I would like to know how to define betas when using a cross-sectional regression approach, rather than the time series approach. My goal is beta hedging of a ...
jam123's user avatar
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4 votes
2 answers
159 views

How is an equity TRS reflected on a balance sheet?

Suppose there is a hedge fund with with USD 50M cash and the balance sheet is below. Asset: 50M Liability: 0 Partner's Capital: 50M If the hedge fund executed a USD 100M notional TRS with 25% IA (USD ...
Tom Ho's user avatar
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How can this problem be defined formally?

Let's consider a straightforward example in which I possess a portfolio consisting of two stocks: $ R(t) = S_{1}(t) \cdot x_1 + S_{2}(t) \cdot x_2, $ Here, $t$ represents the time index, $R(t)$ ...
Barbab's user avatar
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