# Questions tagged [equities]

Shares of stock traded in a stock market. Equities represent the residual claim or interest of the most junior class of investors in assets, after all liabilities are paid.

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16k views

### Any known bugs with Yahoo Finance adjusted close data ?

Yahoo Finance allows you to download tables of their daily historical stock price data. The data includes an adjusted closing price that I thought I might use to calculate daily log returns as a ...
53k views

### How to simulate stock prices with a Geometric Brownian Motion?

I want to simulate stock price paths with different stochastic processes. I started with the famous geometric brownian motion. I simulated the values with the following formula: R_i=\frac{S_{i+1}-...
13k views

### Why does the adjusted closing price take into account dividends?

I'm trying to get an intuition as to why the adjusted closing price includes a dividend adjustment: $$1 - \frac{dividend}{close}$$ I understand why the adjusted closing ...
4k views

### How to design a custom equity backtester?

I was thinking about writing my own backtester and I realize I have to make some assumptions. So I was hoping I could post what I am planning on doing and hopefully some of you can give me some ideas ...
4k views

### When should you build your own equity risk model?

Commercial risk models (e.g., Barra, Axioma, Barclays, Northfield) have evolved to a very high level of sophistication. However, all of these models attempt to solve a very broad set of problems. ...
2k views

How should one correctly forward adjust historical prices given a time series of Open, High, Low, Close, Return? Suppose that the data series is given below ('1' is the oldest interval; '5' is the ...
17k views

### How to normalize stock data

Please advise how can i normalize stock prices. Recently, I've been using such formulas: Log prices = Ln(Close(t)) Close(t)-Mean (Close(t)-Mean)/(StdDev) Ln(Close(t))-Mean Is there any other ways?
538 views

### Scanning a stock database for errors/flaws

I'm currently working on some matlab code that is supposed to check a stock database for any errors (missing values, wrong values, etc.). The reason for this is that after reading this post I came to ...
1k views

### call vs put open interest

I have been observing the data for US stock options. In general, it seem like there are more open interest for call rather than for put, is there a reason people like to write more call? at the ...
7k views

### What are the best sources for equity quantitative research?

What are the best sources of quantitative finance research in equities? I will list a couple and note an asterisk if the research is available by request (i.e. non-clients) or online: BAC-Merrill ...
5k views

### Lévy alpha-stable distribution and modelling of stock prices.

Since Mandelbrot, Fama and others have performed seminal work on the topic, it has been suspected that stock price fluctuations can be more appropriately modeled using Lévy alpha-stable distrbutions ...
11k views

### Is the stock price process a martingale or a Markov process?

Some people claim that the data-generating process for stocks is a "martingale" and that is has the "Markov property". Are they unrelated? Is it that the Markov property implies some sort of ...
2k views

### Why do some anomalies persist while others fade away?

In their 1990 book, A Non-Random Walk Down Wall Street, Andrew Lo and Craig MacKinlay document a number of persistent predictable patterns in stock prices. One of these "anomalies" is variously known ...
6k views

### How to cluster stocks and construct an affinity matrix?

My goal is to find clusters of stocks. The "affinity" matrix will define the "closeness" of points. This article gives a bit more background. The ultimate purpose is to investigate the "cohesion" ...
12k views

### Which brokers offer a .NET stock trading API?

I'm trying to make up my mind and choose a broker, however much of my choice depends on the trading API offered. I'm definitely not interested in FIX solutions and I'd very much like a .NET ...
9k views

### Free intra-day equity data source

Are there any free data source for historical US equity data? Yahoo finance has daily prices but I'm looking for something more granular and goes back 2 or more years (doesn't have to be close to tick ...
2k views

### How do I reproduce the cross-sectional regression in “Intraday Patterns in the Cross-section of Stock Returns”?

Recently I was trying to reproduce the results of "Intraday Patterns in the Cross-section of Stock Returns" (published in the Journal of Finance 2010). The authors used cross-sectional regression to ...
851 views

### How do you distinguish “significant” moves from noise?

How do you distinguish between losses that are within the normal range for day-to-day shifts and situations with a real potential for loss? The specific application I have in mind is pattern ...
2k views

### How to forecast expected volatility from high-frequency equity panel data?

I'm wading through the vast sea of literature on realized volatility estimation and expected volatility forecasting (see, e.g. Realized Volatility by Andersen and Benzoni, which cites 120 other papers,...
2k views

### Hedging stocks with VIX futures

It seems that VIX futures could be a great hedge for a long-only stock portfolio since they rise when stocks fall. But how many VIX futures should I buy to hedge my portfolio, and which futures ...
4k views

### How can I learn about the quantitative aspects of market making in illiquid single stock options?

I would like to learn more about the possible ways of doing quantitative research regarding option market making. In particular, while the mainstream index option market may be very liquid, the ...
5k views

### How to solve for the implied stock lending rate given equity options prices?

When market makers price options on hard-to-borrow equities, they include the cost to borrow the underlying equity that their broker is going to charge them to sell the security short to hedge. I'm ...
2k views

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### Why can sometimes stock prices rise when interest rates rise?

Basic macroeconomics theory states that stock prices are inversely correlated with interest rates, i.e., when interest rates rise, borrowing is more costly, and thus companies with huge debt would be ...
1k views

### How can you determine the correct significance of the Shiller P/E regression?

The "Shiller P/E regression" refers to the regression of real stock market returns over the next 20 years on the Shiller P/E. When I did this OLS regression myself (based on the data from Prof. ...
4k views

### how to calculate daily risk free rate using 13 week treasury bill

I want to calculate excess return for AAPL plus the S&P 500. I have computed monthly and daily logarithmic returns for every stock and for the market, I now need to calculate the risk free ...
286 views

### Which proxies to user for investor sentiment and industry performance, and where to find the data?

I came up with the idea of dealing with investor's sentiment effect in stock market in my thesis. I would like to know which proxies you would suggest to use as sentiment index and from which source ...
662 views

### How to use binomial tree for portfolio of equity products

How can I use a binomial tree to price a European option that's based on a portfolio of equity products? I have volatility and correlation matrix of all underlying products? Looking for a formula ...
1k views

### Why is stock futures price much lower than spot?

What might be the reason for a futures price on a stock being much lower than the spot, i.e. stock price? Spot = 8.30 Futures M17 = 7.45 U17 = 7.23 The company does not pay dividends. No-arbitrage ...
578 views

### Exclusion of Utilites and Financials in Magic Formula

In Joel Greenblatt's magic formula, see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magic_formula_investing, why are utilities and financials excluded? What is the reasoning behind this?
2k views

### Correlation between S&P500 returns and 10y US Treasuries yields

I'd like to investigate the comovement of stock index returns with bond yields but I don't know which return's duration to use (1-year, 1-month or anything else) to get a better view of the ...
90 views

### Scaling Stock Price and Strike etc. by a Constant

Please provide steps to justify the below. 1) If the stock prices, strike and other price related parameters are scaled by the same constant, will the derivative price scale accordingly? I would ...
130 views

### % Drawdown on Stock Portfolio to hit Margin Call

Margin requirement is industry standard at 30% of total portfolio (cash + margin loan) e.g. You have 600k in equities purchased with cash and 400k in equities purchased on margin loan. The total ...
1k views

### Calculating the correlation of stock A with stock B

Background: This question is from Active Portfolio Management by Grinold and Kahn (Exercise 4 of Chapter 2- Consensus Expected Returns: The Capital Asset Pricing Model). I have no background in ...
1k views

### How to get/estimate ask/bid price for backtesting for OHLC data? [closed]

As you know, most of the EOD data available have only OHLC price. I used to do back-testing using the Close price as both bid and ask. however, in real world, the bid and ask spread is huge and the ...
622 views

### What is the relative performance of hard-to-borrow securities?

Is there any research on the equity return performance of hard-to-borrow securities? Many shops will simply screen for hard-to-borrow and eliminate these names from their short book. Anecdotally, ...
2k views

### Where can be found the tick size list for stocks traded in NASDAQ and NYSE?

Answering this question is relevant to assess the quality of a time series in order to observe whether the data vendor applies some rounding to the data or is more decimal are present than the actual ...