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Questions tagged [equities]

Shares of stock traded in a stock market. Equities represent the residual claim or interest of the most junior class of investors in assets, after all liabilities are paid.

29
votes
9answers
15k views

Any known bugs with Yahoo Finance adjusted close data ?

Yahoo Finance allows you to download tables of their daily historical stock price data. The data includes an adjusted closing price that I thought I might use to calculate daily log returns as a ...
26
votes
5answers
50k views

How to simulate stock prices with a Geometric Brownian Motion?

I want to simulate stock price paths with different stochastic processes. I started with the famous geometric brownian motion. I simulated the values with the following formula: $$R_i=\frac{S_{i+1}-...
15
votes
3answers
13k views

Why does the adjusted closing price take into account dividends?

I'm trying to get an intuition as to why the adjusted closing price includes a dividend adjustment: \begin{equation} 1 - \frac{dividend}{close} \end{equation} I understand why the adjusted closing ...
29
votes
8answers
4k views

How to design a custom equity backtester?

I was thinking about writing my own backtester and I realize I have to make some assumptions. So I was hoping I could post what I am planning on doing and hopefully some of you can give me some ideas ...
18
votes
2answers
3k views

When should you build your own equity risk model?

Commercial risk models (e.g., Barra, Axioma, Barclays, Northfield) have evolved to a very high level of sophistication. However, all of these models attempt to solve a very broad set of problems. ...
12
votes
1answer
2k views

Forward Adjusting Stock Prices?

How should one correctly forward adjust historical prices given a time series of Open, High, Low, Close, Return? Suppose that the data series is given below ('1' is the oldest interval; '5' is the ...
4
votes
2answers
15k views

How to normalize stock data

Please advise how can i normalize stock prices. Recently, I've been using such formulas: Log prices = Ln(Close(t)) Close(t)-Mean (Close(t)-Mean)/(StdDev) Ln(Close(t))-Mean Is there any other ways?
10
votes
3answers
531 views

Scanning a stock database for errors/flaws

I'm currently working on some matlab code that is supposed to check a stock database for any errors (missing values, wrong values, etc.). The reason for this is that after reading this post I came to ...
1
vote
2answers
328 views

Identify stock split from historical price data

I have price series data with open, high, low, close and adjusted close for different companies. I am not sure whether this data is adjusted for stock splits or not and would like to know how to check ...
46
votes
11answers
5k views

Lévy alpha-stable distribution and modelling of stock prices.

Since Mandelbrot, Fama and others have performed seminal work on the topic, it has been suspected that stock price fluctuations can be more appropriately modeled using Lévy alpha-stable distrbutions ...
24
votes
3answers
7k views

What are the best sources for equity quantitative research?

What are the best sources of quantitative finance research in equities? I will list a couple and note an asterisk if the research is available by request (i.e. non-clients) or online: BAC-Merrill ...
23
votes
5answers
10k views

Is the stock price process a martingale or a Markov process?

Some people claim that the data-generating process for stocks is a "martingale" and that is has the "Markov property". Are they unrelated? Is it that the Markov property implies some sort of ...
13
votes
7answers
12k views

Which brokers offer a .NET stock trading API?

I'm trying to make up my mind and choose a broker, however much of my choice depends on the trading API offered. I'm definitely not interested in FIX solutions and I'd very much like a .NET ...
31
votes
7answers
2k views

Why do some anomalies persist while others fade away?

In their 1990 book, A Non-Random Walk Down Wall Street, Andrew Lo and Craig MacKinlay document a number of persistent predictable patterns in stock prices. One of these "anomalies" is variously known ...
18
votes
5answers
6k views

How to cluster stocks and construct an affinity matrix?

My goal is to find clusters of stocks. The "affinity" matrix will define the "closeness" of points. This article gives a bit more background. The ultimate purpose is to investigate the "cohesion" ...
17
votes
4answers
9k views

Free intra-day equity data source

Are there any free data source for historical US equity data? Yahoo finance has daily prices but I'm looking for something more granular and goes back 2 or more years (doesn't have to be close to tick ...
14
votes
1answer
2k views

How do I reproduce the cross-sectional regression in “Intraday Patterns in the Cross-section of Stock Returns”?

Recently I was trying to reproduce the results of "Intraday Patterns in the Cross-section of Stock Returns" (published in the Journal of Finance 2010). The authors used cross-sectional regression to ...
19
votes
2answers
835 views

How do you distinguish “significant” moves from noise?

How do you distinguish between losses that are within the normal range for day-to-day shifts and situations with a real potential for loss? The specific application I have in mind is pattern ...
18
votes
2answers
2k views

How to forecast expected volatility from high-frequency equity panel data?

I'm wading through the vast sea of literature on realized volatility estimation and expected volatility forecasting (see, e.g. Realized Volatility by Andersen and Benzoni, which cites 120 other papers,...
17
votes
2answers
4k views

How can I learn about the quantitative aspects of market making in illiquid single stock options?

I would like to learn more about the possible ways of doing quantitative research regarding option market making. In particular, while the mainstream index option market may be very liquid, the ...
15
votes
4answers
4k views

How to solve for the implied stock lending rate given equity options prices?

When market makers price options on hard-to-borrow equities, they include the cost to borrow the underlying equity that their broker is going to charge them to sell the security short to hedge. I'm ...
10
votes
1answer
1k views

Price functions based on order book events

Assume some equity traded on a given exchange based on an electronic limit open-order book $B$ that makes sequential updates as a function of time $t$. What are "natural" or common price functions $P: ...
11
votes
1answer
2k views

What are the main market efficiency measures in the stock market?

I'm going to test for the effect of the change in market efficiency on the stock market portfolio, and, I want to know what are the main measures known in the academic literature in order to compare ...
9
votes
2answers
3k views

What are the econometric assumptions in the Fama-Macbeth procedure (1973)?

Fama-Macbeth (1973) introduce a two stage cross-sectional regression method (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fama%E2%80%93MacBeth_regression). 1) If I was to regress stock prices (or returns) on a ...
18
votes
3answers
2k views

Hedging stocks with VIX futures

It seems that VIX futures could be a great hedge for a long-only stock portfolio since they rise when stocks fall. But how many VIX futures should I buy to hedge my portfolio, and which futures ...
3
votes
1answer
4k views

Free stock split history data source?

Does anyone know of a reliable (free) source of historical stock split information? There's a YQL api for pulling down 'key stats' on a symbol but it only contains the LastSplitDate. Adjusted close ...
7
votes
3answers
859 views

Why should there be an equity risk premium?

After years of mathematical finance I am still not satisfied with the idea of a risk premium in the case of stocks. I agree that (often) there is a premium for long dated bonds, illiquid bonds or ...
8
votes
3answers
324 views

Can Gaussianity of returns depend on the time frame?

I would be interested in knowing if the fact that returns are Gaussian is disproved on all time frames, or if, for example, the 5 minute intra-day time frame could exhibits Gaussian returns assuming ...
6
votes
2answers
345 views

Cochrane on Return Predictability

Being a lover of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's work, I picked up a copy of Cochrane’s 2008 paper, The Dog That Did Not Bark: A Defense of Return Predictability and read: If returns are not predictable, ...
10
votes
2answers
749 views

What is a reasonable upper bound on the performance of a daily trading strategy?

I am backtesting an equity trading strategy which trades only once per day. Is there a general rule of thumb for the reasonable upper bound on the rate of return of such a strategy? For example, a ...
8
votes
1answer
285 views

Replicating a portfolio with a certain payoff function

Assume there are two stocks $S_1$ with price $p_1(t)$ and $S_2$ with price $p_2(t)$ where $t$ indicates time. Assume, there is a hypothetical derivative $D$, which is such that, price of $D$ at a time ...
6
votes
2answers
3k views

Data exported from Capital IQ, FactSet, Bloomberg, Compustat

I'm looking for reliable data on US equity fundamentals, but not sure which vendor provides these features: Unlimited data export Coverage of disbanded entities (bankruptcies, M&A) Financial ...
6
votes
0answers
309 views

How are quants able to verify whether their calculated prices are any good

This question is related to the discussion on Model Validation Criteria However it appeard to be very high level to me and I would like to go more into detail. Not working at a pricing desk the ...
5
votes
3answers
585 views

How to hedge a derivative that pays the reciprocal of the stock price?

1) Suppose S is the stock price, how to hedge a derivative that pays $1/S_t$ at time $t$? 2) Suppose there will be a dividend of amount $d$ between $t$ and $T$, how to hedge a derivative that pays $...
4
votes
6answers
592 views

Why can sometimes stock prices rise when interest rates rise?

Basic macroeconomics theory states that stock prices are inversely correlated with interest rates, i.e., when interest rates rise, borrowing is more costly, and thus companies with huge debt would be ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

How can you determine the correct significance of the Shiller P/E regression?

The "Shiller P/E regression" refers to the regression of real stock market returns over the next 20 years on the Shiller P/E. When I did this OLS regression myself (based on the data from Prof. ...
0
votes
2answers
2k views

how to calculate daily risk free rate using 13 week treasury bill

I want to calculate excess return for AAPL plus the S&P 500. I have computed monthly and daily logarithmic returns for every stock and for the market, I now need to calculate the risk free ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

call vs put open interest

I have been observing the data for US stock options. In general, it seem like there are more open interest for call rather than for put, is there a reason people like to write more call? at the ...
8
votes
1answer
651 views

How to use binomial tree for portfolio of equity products

How can I use a binomial tree to price a European option that's based on a portfolio of equity products? I have volatility and correlation matrix of all underlying products? Looking for a formula ...
7
votes
2answers
991 views

Why is stock futures price much lower than spot?

What might be the reason for a futures price on a stock being much lower than the spot, i.e. stock price? Spot = 8.30 Futures M17 = 7.45 U17 = 7.23 The company does not pay dividends. No-arbitrage ...
2
votes
0answers
434 views

How does this return decomposition work?

http://image-src.bcg.com/Images/BCG-Value-Creators-2017-Appendix-July-2017_tcm9-166061.pdf The paper here decomposes total shareholder return into different components. Here is my derivation of the ...
1
vote
1answer
196 views

Exclusion of Utilites and Financials in Magic Formula

In Joel Greenblatt's magic formula, see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magic_formula_investing, why are utilities and financials excluded? What is the reasoning behind this?
1
vote
0answers
84 views

Scaling Stock Price and Strike etc. by a Constant

Please provide steps to justify the below. 1) If the stock prices, strike and other price related parameters are scaled by the same constant, will the derivative price scale accordingly? I would ...
1
vote
2answers
2k views

Correlation between S&P500 returns and 10y US Treasuries yields

I'd like to investigate the comovement of stock index returns with bond yields but I don't know which return's duration to use (1-year, 1-month or anything else) to get a better view of the ...
0
votes
1answer
976 views

Calculating the correlation of stock A with stock B

Background: This question is from Active Portfolio Management by Grinold and Kahn (Exercise 4 of Chapter 2- Consensus Expected Returns: The Capital Asset Pricing Model). I have no background in ...
0
votes
2answers
101 views

% Drawdown on Stock Portfolio to hit Margin Call

Margin requirement is industry standard at 30% of total portfolio (cash + margin loan) e.g. You have 600k in equities purchased with cash and 400k in equities purchased on margin loan. The total ...
-1
votes
2answers
961 views

How to get/estimate ask/bid price for backtesting for OHLC data? [closed]

As you know, most of the EOD data available have only OHLC price. I used to do back-testing using the Close price as both bid and ask. however, in real world, the bid and ask spread is huge and the ...
5
votes
1answer
605 views

What is the relative performance of hard-to-borrow securities?

Is there any research on the equity return performance of hard-to-borrow securities? Many shops will simply screen for hard-to-borrow and eliminate these names from their short book. Anecdotally, ...
4
votes
1answer
2k views

Where can be found the tick size list for stocks traded in NASDAQ and NYSE?

Answering this question is relevant to assess the quality of a time series in order to observe whether the data vendor applies some rounding to the data or is more decimal are present than the actual ...
2
votes
2answers
2k views

Correct Alphabet (Google) market cap calculation?

Given the definition: ...