Questions tagged [european-options]

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77 views

Intepreting European call option when expiration approaches to infinity

Assume that dividend = 0, then the price of call option is $$ C = S\cdot P_{s}[S(T) > K] - e^{-rT}K\cdot P_F[S(T) > K] = SN(d_1)-e^{-rT}KN(d_2) $$ where $P_s[S(T) > K]$ = Probability of ITM ...
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0answers
27 views

Intraday “Time to expiration” for Black-Scholes on the expiration day

In Black-Scholes, T is the % of year, how do we calculate T intraday on the expiration day? Does the expiration happen at the exact moment of that trading session? For example, for SPXW options that ...
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1answer
52 views

How to price an European put option using binomial model with dividend yield?

The initial stock price (S0) is 45, the stock volatility is 0.20 (20% per annum), and the risk-free rate is 0.02 (2% per annum). Consider a European put option whose strike price is equal to 30, with ...
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0answers
59 views

Option where option writer determines type of option to give to holder

I am currently looking at an exotic option that allows the holder, at some time $\tau$, to receive either a call or put — the choice of which is decided by the option writer — of which both have the ...
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1answer
136 views

Hull's book - Futures option's rho

In Hull's book (9th edition), on page 420, in table 19.6, it says rho of a European call on an asset with yield $q$ is $$KTe^{-rT}N(d_2)$$ Below it says we can compute greeks of European options on ...
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1answer
61 views

Maximal increase payoff

I am interested in the following problem. We have a Multi-Step Binomial Model with discrete time $T=1,\dots,n$. We also assume that the stock $S_t$ is a martingale and there is a risk-free bond with $...
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1answer
75 views

Investigating how rational price of European call option changes [closed]

Let S(0) = 100 be the initial price of the risky asset. Consider a European call option with exercise price K and expiry time T = 1 (year). Consider several binomial models and investigate how does ...
2
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1answer
62 views

European call option on constant volatility or drawn from a volatility distribution

Which is more expensive: A European call option on constant volatility of 30% or or drawn from a random distribution of mean 30%? The answer in A Practical Guide To Quantitative Finance Interviews, ...
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20 views

Seed Values guaranteed convergence of Implied Volatility Calculation

Looking for good seed values for Newton Raphson to guarantee convergence of implied volatility calculation for a few models, all of which are for equities that have divs. 1) Bjerksund-Stensland 2002; ...
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2answers
248 views

How do I prove that a certain price is price of European option in Black-Scholes framework

I want to show whether the following price at t is of a european option in Black-Scholes Framework. $$S_tlog_e (S_t^3) $$ Is it just trying to substitute the function (and partial derivates) in the ...
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1answer
32 views

is price of multiple option strategy linear under expectation? [closed]

I wonder if someone can confirm (or refute) that the expected payoff of several option (in a strategy such as a spread, condor, etc) behaves as "expection of a sum is sum of expectations". ...
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1answer
60 views

Single-period market with probability space [closed]

Let $C^E$, $P^E$, $C^A$, and $P^A$ denote prices of a European call option, a European put option, an American call option and an American put option, respectively. All of them with expiry time $T$ ...
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0answers
36 views

Issue in Understanding the Boundary Conditions for European Call Option in Implicit Finite Difference Method

I have a working Python code which prices European call option in Implicit Finite Difference setting. However, I am unable to understand the Boundary Conditions implemented on the coefficient matrix ...
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0answers
43 views

Put-call parity under a regime-switching model

I need some help. I'm given $J$ different regimes, each one characterized by its own parameters $(r_i, \delta_i,\sigma_i,...)$ with $i\in \mathcal{J}= \{1,2,...,J\}$ ($r$ = risk-free interest rate, $...
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2answers
107 views

Reason to hedge a European call option

Assume I write a call option on one share of the stock that I have. After selling the option I have an obligation to sell one share of the stock at some future time. I already have the stock, why ...
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2answers
141 views

Why are there so many S&P 500 call options selling with strike @1000?

I am analysing option-implied RNDs and risk preferences for my masters thesis, so forgive me if I sound like a beginner in derivatives. I use WRDS to download my historic options data. I am looking at ...
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2answers
246 views

Do basket options have a closed form valuation formula?

Suppose I'm simulating a European call option on a basket consisting of N stocks with slightly varying volatilities but all other parameters remain the same. From the perspective of an estimate, it ...
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1answer
54 views

Can a down-and-out barrier call option be priced using the Black & Scholes formula or should it be approximated?

I am trying to price of a Down-and-Out Barrier call option with leverage. When the price of the underlying asset hits a certain barrier (B), the option becomes worthless. The issuer of these options ...
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2answers
83 views

Why are these deep in-the-money FLEX options seemingly bought at a discount?

98% of the initial reference value is .98 x 267.88 dollars, which equals 262.52 dollars. However, the market value of each call contract they purchase is 247.42 dollars. How are they purchasing these ...
2
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1answer
82 views

Free or cheap data source for the current European Options prices?

Is there a free or cheap (<15$/month) data source for the current (not historical) for European Options? Something like Yahoo Finance option page, with option chain contract prices. It's ok if it's ...
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1answer
61 views

FX pricing replication

Pay in currency : cur The FX is : $FX^{cur_2/cur_1}$ European options on the FX (and itself) are quoted in currency cur 1. I'm looking for the price of \begin{equation*} \mathbb{E}^{Q} \left[ e^{-\...
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1answer
164 views

How to best predict option prices using Brownian motion and compare it to the Black and Scholes model?

I am trying to use Brownian motion to predict option prices and compare the outcomes to Black and Scholes. For this purpose, I would like to calculate the average returns (mu) and volatility (sigma) ...
3
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1answer
282 views

Converting an American option to European option [closed]

I wonder if there are any websites/resources/sample codes/papers on how to convert the American options to European options (when all else are equal). i.e. if given same underlying asset, same ...
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2answers
107 views

Failing to replicate Wilmott's results for binomial option pricing

I am working through Paul Wilmott introduces Quantitative Finance, 2nd ed. I am failing to reproduce one of his numerical examples and I would like to understand why. I chapter 3, Wilmott introduces ...
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1answer
95 views

Under what conditions will both European and American put options worth the same?

It is well-known that on a non-dividend paying stock, it is suboptimal to exercise an American call option earlier. In other words, both European and American call options on the same non-dividend ...
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2answers
81 views

How are option values in real life calculated without volatility?

Implied volatility is the volatility that when inputted in the Black-Scholes model, it returns the theoretical market price of a European option value. I understand that implied volatility is not ...
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0answers
37 views

Black-Scholes pricing of european call option

I am really confused on the usage of the greeks and the Black-Scholes model for option pricing. To gain some more understanding I am attempting to see if I can price a european call option under the ...
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1answer
63 views

How to evaluate embedded floor option in inflation linked bonds if interbank inflation floor instruments cannot be used or do not exist

Suppose we consider simple case that only par is protected against base price index, so it is with zero coupon floor feature. How do we value this option given that there is no inflation floor ...
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0answers
15 views

How to show the Bermudan put option is convex in strike price?

Is there a way to generalise the arbitrage argument for a European put being convex in strike price to the Bermudan option? (i.e. considering two portfolios, showing one has greater value than the ...
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0answers
42 views

What is a lookback rate put option

I've come across an option called a look-back rate put option. However, the source I got this from did not say what this is. I understand what a look-back put option is, but the rate bit is throwing ...
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27 views

No unique no-arbitrage price when the stock price can remain unchanged

In a 1-period binomial model, with initial stock price 100, if the stock price is either 50,100, or 150 after 1 period then how can I show there is no longer a unique no-arbitrage price for a European ...
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1answer
76 views

Butterfly spread calls and puts

I am trying to understand the butterfly spread. My book (ASM Study Manual for SOA Investment & Financial Markets (IFM) Exam) says one of the ways to write it is: Long put, strike $=K-c$ Short ...
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1answer
66 views

Arbitrage between American and European put options on the same underlying asset

Suppose there exist both American-style and European-style put options on the same underlying asset, at the same strike price, and with the same expiry date. Suppose the European put is selling below ...
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2answers
220 views

Python Monte-Carlo Convergence

Edited to include VBA code for comparison Also, we know the analytical value of the simple Call option, which is 8.021, towards which the Monte-Carlo should converge, which makes the comparison easier....
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0answers
28 views

Call option value when stock price remains as strike price till maturity

I was asked the following question in an interview: Given the standard European call option, if we know that the stock price will be the same as strike price from now till maturity, what will ...
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1answer
63 views

Are there values of the strike price for which an American put and European put have the same no-arbitrage price?

Assuming the options do not pay dividends, is there a strike price that satisfies this?
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0answers
34 views

Fourier transform Carr-Madan method on an arbitrar initial $S_0$ values

As mentioned in Carr-Madan's paper, here, the European call option is: $$ C_T(k)=\frac{e^{\alpha k}}{\pi}\int_0^\infty\mathcal{Re}\left(e^{-iuk}\psi(u)\right)du $$ where $$ \psi(u)=e^{-rT}\frac{\phi_T(...
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1answer
41 views

Is this the present value of a short position on an option?

Consider a European put option, whose price at time $0$ is $\Pi_0$. Set: $$\mathcal{L}_0=\Pi_0 - P(0,t_M)\Pi_{t_M}$$ where 0 < $t_M$ and $P(0, t_M)$ is the discount factor from time $0$ to time $...
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1answer
89 views

A PARADOX? - relationship between risk reversal (slope of vol smile) and digital price

how do we resolve this seeming paradox? lets take GBPUSD now: it has a negative risk reversal, ie putvols > call vols , because traders expect spot to fall, so they are buying puts, pushing their ...
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1answer
79 views

Why is there a theoretical lower bound on the price of call options?

From my textbook, I see that the theoretical lower bound for the price of a European call option on a non-dividend-paying stock is: $S_0 - \mathrm{Ke}^\mathrm{-rT}$, where $S_0$ is the current stock ...
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1answer
115 views

Valuation Down-And-Out Put Option via Rubinstein Closed-Form Solution

I am trying to understand the closed form solution for evaluating a down-and-out put option of Rubinstein and Reiner (1991) as stated in Baule and Tallau (2011) for the valuation of bonus certificates....
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2answers
93 views

European Call option combined with Short selling

How would I calculate the abitrage profit from a combination of buying the $10 European call option and short selling X number of shares at t=0 and the coming out with a profit at expiry no matter ...
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0answers
30 views

Hedging with a different underlying - bond options case

I'm working on government-bond options pricing (Black-Scholes world, nothing fancy). In EUR, that's pretty much a "non market" in the sense that there's pretty much no quotes, so no implied vols, no ...
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2answers
139 views

What is wrong with this method of european option pricing?

Carr-Madan proved that there is a simple relation between call-prices and the characteristic function of the underlying model. See Equation 5 and 6 in their original paper http://citeseerx.ist.psu....
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1answer
118 views

When do Fourier inversion methods run into problems?

So in my courses, we always priced options either with Monte Carlo methods, or some sort of PDE discretization. Then I looked up Fourier inversion methods on my own that rely on the characteristic ...
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2answers
130 views

If most real options are American, why so much focus on European option pricing?

At my university, there is a compulsory course in European option pricing (centered around Black Scholes formula). But the course on optimal stopping theory (which is needed for American options) is ...
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2answers
89 views

Proof European call price is always less than stock price. (proof verification)

Let $C_K(t,T)$ be the value of a European call with strike $K$ and maturity $T$ on a stock with value $S_t$ at time $t$. Then for all $t\leq T$ we have $$C_K(t,T)\leq S_t.$$ $\textbf{Proof}$: We ...
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4answers
2k views

Can strike prices of options be negative?

I am trying to understand the stochastic model of a financial market in one period by [Föllmer, Schied]. They introduce call and put options for the primary assets, which are non-negative. They do not ...
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1answer
123 views

Nonlinear Black-Scholes model Vs linear Black-Scholes

I am working on a project related to Nonlinear BS partial differential equation, with terms for transaction costs and/or discrete hedging. I have two questions: Is there any exact solution to the ...
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2answers
648 views

Price American call equal to price European call (non-dividend-paying stock)

Let $\tilde{C}_K(t,T)$ be the value (price) of an American call option at strike $K$ and maturity $T$, and $C_K(t,T)$ the value (price) of a European call option at same parameters. For a non-...