Questions tagged [finance]

Finance describes the management, creation, and study of money, banking, credit, investments, assets and liabilities as well as the systems to handle these instruments.

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34 views

University Project Ideas [closed]

I am a Mathematics and Computer Science student and need to pick a final year project. I plan on persuing a career in investment banking (advisory) but want to carry out a project related to ...
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Creating Dataframe of stock fundamentals from list of tickers

I have obtained a list of tickers of stocks in the S&P 500 using the following code (I've got this information from a table on Wikipedia): ...
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35 views

How could a group investors artificially lower the price of a stock

It's well known that a group of "large" investors can raise the price of a stock with "small" marketcap simply by buying up and holding as many units of it as they can. This ...
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82 views

Compounding negative returns?

Assume you're short AAPL. Say you sold short at 24.28 as of 2016-01-01 and cover 2021-09-13 on 149.74. So your return is (24.28-149.74)/24.28 or -517%. If you get the daily returns of AAPL and just ...
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62 views

Reference for path dependent options

I want to study path dependent options for which I am following the book Paul Wilmott on Quantitative finance.But here I dont find the detailed explanations or derivations for the various PDEs .So is ...
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1answer
55 views

Difference in pricing of American call and put

In Paul Wilmotts quantitative finance books he says that the the value of an American option satisfies the following $$ \frac{\partial V}{\partial t}+\frac{1}{2}\sigma^2S^2 \frac{\partial^2V}{\partial ...
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67 views

Independent variable in pricing of strongly path dependent options

I am reading Paul Wilmott on quantatative finance where he discuss the pricing of strongly path dependent options.The payoff at expiry T depends on the path taken by the asset in the sense that it ...
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1answer
91 views

Pricing a Forward Rate Agreement using QuantLib Python

Can someone please help with the pricing of the following forward rate agreement using QuantLib Python? A 3x6 forward rate agreement, with a notional of $100,000, the FRA rate being 6%, The FRA ...
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1answer
46 views

Computing the denominator of diluted earnings per share

I'm practicing for CFA level 1, and I faced this question. I don't understand the last part (802 − 481 = 321) because I understand that a company doesn't realize options of its own shares, if you are ...
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22 views

Interpreting flows divided by AUM

For a panel regression of some public fund flows, I have standardized the net flows by dividing flows at month $t$ by $AUM_{t-1}$. This puts the flows into perspective, but I feel that this kind of ...
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20 views

Incorporate Transaction Date to Price Fixed Rate Bond using Quantlib Python

I am trying to use QuantLib Python to price a fixed rate bond, based on the following data: Issue date is 28 September 2017 (issueDate), maturity date is 28 ...
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24 views

Broker limit for limit orders simultaneously outstanding

if my buying power is 100k, is there a way to have 200 different limit orders, 1k each? In practice only one or two orders will be filled, but I can not tell which one and IBKR will not let me have ...
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34 views

Equivalence of expectation condition for contingent claims attainable and contingent claims super replicable

We have the following definitions for set of contingent claims attainable and contingent claims super replicable I want to prove the following result How do I show iii $\implies $ ii.I understand ...
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1answer
155 views

No free Lunch and weak-star topology

The no free lunch is stated as follows What is the significance of the weak-star topology here .Also as far as I understand the weak-star topology is defined on the dual of a Banach space.So what is ...
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38 views

Specify fixing days for floating leg in Interest Rate Swap valuation using QuantLib Python

I am trying to price an Interest Rate Swap using QuantLib Python, and everything seems to be fine. However, I can't seem to understand where I can specify the number of fixing days. Below are my codes....
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1answer
86 views

Hypothesis testing book

I am looking for a book that is focused on hypothesis testing. I read "Hypothesis Testing: An Intuitive Guide for Making Data Driven" by Jim Frost and I'm looking for similar book which is ...
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1answer
59 views

Explanation for Different Piecewise Yield Term Structures from QuantLib Python

I am new to QuantLib on Python, but as far as I understand, there are different types of piecewise yield term structures which exist on QuantLib which are bootstrapped on a number of interest rate ...
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1answer
73 views

Zero Rates for Deposits using Quantlib Python

I have used QuantLib Python to construct a zero curve from deposits and bonds. Below are my codes: ...
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47 views

How to annualize kurtosis of returns (in simple terms)?

I'm confused by this post on how to annualize kurtosis. I don't understand how to apply it to annualize the kurtosis for my data. In other words, if I evaluated the kurtosis of, say, monthly returns (...
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425 views

Risk Model Validation

I have such a general question regarding risk model validation. Which tools are most often used for validation and how does the process work? Could you recommend any books that focus on this topic?
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72 views

General question regarding delta heding

I was wondering if I have to take the strike prices of options into consideration when doing a gamma and delta hedging. As an example, let's suppose that I have 2 positions: a long position call ...
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1answer
117 views

Fat tailed can be estimated through a t-distributions?

I have a simple question that makes me doubt a bit. In a multiple choise exam I ecountered this question: "if the stocks returns are not normally distributed, the fat tail effect can be estimated ...
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2answers
700 views

Where can I find detailed information of famous quant companies such as Renaissance Technologies?

I am doing a report about famous quant companies such as Renaissance Technologies. Where can I find information such as ranking of these companies and their fund's rate of return.
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80 views

Quantitative interview questions - fixed income [duplicate]

I will pass a quant interview (fixed income). The interviewer said the questions do not have a right answer, they are not math exercises. He said the questions are like their job,the objective is to ...
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25 views

Finding historical data

I need T-bill rates in order to use it as risk-free asset from Jan,2003 t0 today.(monthly data) I don't know how to find it. Can you please suggest your idea about how to find it?
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1answer
54 views

Sharpe Ratio of a Long-Short Portfolio

I have a portfolio High and Low (according to the highest profit). From this I have formed my long short portfolio and calculated my Sharpe Ratio. How to interpret this correctly? Does a positive ...
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1answer
59 views

Is Fungibility Dynamic or Static

I'm trying to work out if fungibility of financial assets / instruments is dynamic (i.e. it can be applied to a subset of the asset or instrument's properties) or is it static (i.e. it can only be ...
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33 views

For investment analysis, is it helpful to draw charts of present value (PV) against rate (%)

Background I prepared a prototype getting cash flow as input and drawing as output some charts like present value (PV) against rate (%). The points with big radius on chart of NPV against rate are IRR ...
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46 views

Different methodologies of building indices

Say have a basket of coupon bonds $B_i$ with $i \in \{1, ..., n\}$. Those bonds have different characteristics one from another. For example they differ in maturity, face value and coupon outstanding. ...
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1answer
35 views

in time series analysis or finance people use log return for inference but returns can take negative value [closed]

in time series analysis or finance people use log return for inference but returns can take negative value. but log cant take negative values. so why we use it when log is not defined on most of ...
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1answer
49 views

How do we analyse the future and option market on the base of the Fama-French model?

How do we analyse the future and option market on the base of the Fama-French model? Basically i want to know can we analyse derivative market on base of FAMA French or CAPM model ? e.g for stock we ...
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39 views

Fama and French HML and SMB factors

I am investigating the Fama and French model using a Bayesian selection procedure laid out by Barillas and Shanken (2018). When I plot the cumulative probabilities of each factor, I notice that for ...
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53 views

Why standard errors in macro-level variables are normally higher than that in firm-level variables?

From this dicussion, the commentor said Lastly, firm fixed effects may absorb more variation and likely reduced the size of their standard errors. In practice, I also mainly see that the standard ...
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1answer
49 views

Show that the following result holds true for the variance of the return of a portfolio of shares

Start with a portfolio $p$ of $n$ shares, each with weight $x_i = \dfrac{1}{n}$ (for $i$ ranging from $1$ to $n$, discretely). Its return is given by: $$R_p=x_1R_1+\ldots+x_nR_n=\sum_{i=1}^{n}=x_iR_i\...
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81 views

Completing the financial investment disclaimer platitude with statistics terminology

Take the typical disclaimer often seen where investment products can be found. Here is a sentence from the fine print of BlackRock's fundamental equity fund page: Performance data quoted represents ...
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1answer
63 views

Basic stock shorting question [closed]

So im just a little cloudy on how shorting a stock drops the share price. I understand that you borrow, or set aside shares from your brokerage to then buy later at the origional price. My guess was ...
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37 views

How to calculate NOPAT if the effective tax rate is 0 or negative

I am trying to calculate NOPAT for L S STARRETT CO. The effive tax rate I calculated for 2020 was -0.09% Operating Income was -5.3 mill. Using the NOPAT formula Operating Profit * (1 - tax rate) I got ...
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Backtesting of outperformance of a benchmark using the Deflated Sharpe Ratio

I want to test whether, let's say, strategy A outperforms strategy B. In Marcos López de Prado's book Advances in Financial Machine Learning he presents the following statistics: The Probalistic ...
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19 views

Capital Charge or Capital add on for Concentration risk using Model-free measure standardised HHI (Herfindahl Hirschman Index)

I am looking to calculate the Capital Charge or Capital Add on for Concentration risk using standardised approach using HHI Below is the HHI index calculation What is procedure to calculate the ...
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29 views

Theoretical reasons for the difference in share price when estimated with DCF-Analysis and DDM

I saw that when estimating the share price with DCF-Analysis (Discounted Cashflow Analysis) and with DDM (Dividend Discount Model) the estimated share price happens to be different sometimes when ...
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1answer
44 views

How does a company increase its free cash flow? [closed]

I am new to the finance space. I read the goal of a company (Philips) is to increase its free cash flow to above 2 billion euros by 2025. I understand that free cash flow is the amount of disposable ...
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1answer
24 views

Reason for difference in share price between DDM and ERM? [closed]

I've calculated the Share Price of a fictional company both using the Dividend Discount Model (DDM) and the Earnings Recapitaliazation Model (ERM). However, the share prices differ significantly ...
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43 views

Should we include the industry variables when we control for year*industry fixed effects?

In panel data, we control for firms and years fixed effects even we also have some time-variant firm-level regressors. I am wondering whether it also happens at the industry level. If it is the case, ...
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1answer
102 views

Why continuously compounded interest a standard in finance? [closed]

Why is the "continuously compounded interest" the standard in finance? Many finance textbooks use the formula e^rt without justification. The assumption that the interest frequency is ...
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70 views

Expected value of P&L based on option prices

How can we compute the expected value of P&L assuming the option price is given? Do we need to have more information to calculate P&L?
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1answer
34 views

How to understand "OAS assumes the recovery rate of the bond is 0" and "OAS" does not include credit risk?

My confusion is, the OAS comes from Z-spread with adjustment on option value. Does it mean the z-spread is assuming that the bond never defaults so that it does not include the "credit risk"?...
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1answer
152 views

How to convert CDX spread to price?

Example: assume the current HY CDX is with 5% coupon. The spread is around 300bps, with a duration of around 4 years. Would you pls help me to understand why we can proxy the HY CDX price as 100+4*(5%-...
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1answer
391 views

what does "p&l leak " refer to in finance?

I have saw "p&l leak" in book/paper more than once, especially when talking about hedging, etc. what does "p&l leak" exactly refer to? Thanks
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85 views

ACT/360 and business day convention interest question

The question I've been stuck is: We have a deposit of 10 million on 2011-04-01 for 7 days at 4 percent, assume T+2 settlement, calculated with ACT/365 basis and following business day convention. (04-...
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1answer
78 views

Regression analysis in finance - book recommendation

Hey I am looking for a good book about regression analysis in finance (e.g. credit risk). Could you recommend something? It would be great if this book will be connected with some programmic language ...

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