# Questions tagged [forward-rate]

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### What does instantaneous forward mean?

Could you please help me to understand meaning of instantaneous forward rate? I mean economic interpretation at basic level. What is it used for? How can i derive it from zero rate/price? Thanks
11k views

### Calculating instantaneous forward rate from zero-coupon yield curve

I have a big dataset containing zero-coupon bond yields with different relative maturities. I fix a time horizon on my dataset and I want to calculate instantaneous forward rate. I'm going to write ...
689 views

### Transforming 3M volatilities into 6M volatilities in EUR forecast curves

I have implemented a stripping algorithm to extract forward volatilities from cap/floor flat volatilities for different currencies. I am however struggling a bit when implementing a method to convert ...
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### Practical implementation of Libor Market Model

I am trying to implement a project about the BGM model, suggested in the book "The Concepts and Practice of mathematical finance" by Mark Joshi. My question is related to the forward volatility ...
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### Why are multiple custom curves (swap) built for one desk?

Currently in a journey of learning and getting my hands a bit dirty with Interest Rate Swaps. Why there are multiple customized curves built by many even within one desk? For e.g. Short Rates desk ...
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Let $P(t,T)=\mathbb{E}_{Q_{R}}[e^{\int^{T}_{t}r(u)du}|\mathcal{F}_{t}]$ be the price of a 1-euro zero-coupon bond with maturity $T$ and $r(u)$ the interest rate process. Consider the the forward rate $... 3answers 454 views ### Which measure is used to price a swap? When we value the floating leg of a standard vanilla swap, we replace the expectation of the future floating rates by the forward rates known today. However my understanding is that the forward rate ... 3answers 399 views ### Why is the spot price not used as the forward price when a forward contract is created? If the initial value of a forward contract is zero, surely the forward price used would be the spot price at the time the contract was created? However, my notes tell me that the forward price F, at$...
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I am currently reading "Deviations from Covered Interest Rate Parity" by Du et al. When establishing deviations from CIRP they consider transaction costs as follows. "We assume that the transaction ...
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### Mid-curve swaption

I would like to know how the mid-curve swaption could inform us about forward volatility. In my understanding it is a swaption on a forward starting swap. Let us say the midcurve swaption expires ...
795 views

### Formula for the forward rates?

I'm reading a book about interest rate modelling. It states the following formula P(0,T) = exp(-sum of the forward rates) But I thought it's the average of the forward rates?
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### zero-coupon bond and forward rate

My understanding, in a discrete-time setting, the relationship between a zero-coupon bond price and forward rates is: $$p(t,T)=\frac{1}{\Pi_{j=1}^{T-1}f(t,j)}.$$ where $p(t,T)$ represents the price ...
312 views

### Pricing of compounded swaps

As far as I understand, a compounded swap rolls up individual payments into one final payment which becomes: $$V(t_n) = N \prod_{i = 0}^{n-1}(1 + d_i L_i)-N$$ where $d_i$ is the day fraction for ...
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### continuously compound forward rate formula

I want to derive the continuously compound forward rate formula according to FRA. fixed rate is $K$ and notional is $N$, $\delta=T_1-T_0$. $t<T_0<T_1$, the FRA holder at time $T_1$ need to pay ...
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### Transform a 3M FRA Rate to a 6M FRA Rate

I have a question whether it is possible to transform 3M FRA rates to 6M FRA rates without having any spreads available. Let's give an example: FRA 3M: FRA 1x4 FRA 2x5 FRA 3x6 FRA 4x7 FRA 5x8 FRA ...
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### Risk neutral measure of short rate model

As we all know, all affine term-structure models are members of HJM model. Under HJM model, there is a unique risk-neutral measure in both forward-rate process and bond evolving process. Hence, the ...
493 views

### forward space vs zero space in finance jargon

Would anyone know what does it mean to value an asset in "forward space" versus "zero space" ? where does one start from when trying to dig into the meaning of this? Thanks in advance.