# Questions tagged [fx]

The foreign exchange market (forex, FX, or currency market) is a global, worldwide-decentralized financial market for trading currencies. Commonly traded instruments include spot, forward, swaps, futures, and options. The FX market is the most liquid financial market in the world. There is no unified or centrally cleared market.

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### How to optimize a series of equations whose outputs are a variable of the subsequent equatinos

The basic question is, given $f(x) = y$ and $f(y) = z$, how can you find $x$ such that $z$ is at its maximum? I can optimize each equation independently, but I do not know how to optimize when ...
163 views

### How can we value NPV for a standard FX Swap?

hope you are all well! Was just wondering how we can value the NPV on the value date for a FX swap - i'm sure it's by evaluating the interest rate payable/receivable from the trade date until the ...
374 views

### LSV model calibration with only few quotes per maturity

At this link I have asked what is the market standard when pricing options in different asset classes. Based on the answers, the standard for FX and equities seems to be the local-stochastic ...
323 views

### What is the intuitive explanation for the spot risk in an FX swap?

I am familiar with FX swap and the basis/IR risk they carry. However, know that they have a very small spot risk component which arises from the present value of future cash flows different from the ...
114 views

### Pricing an fx option in the same currency

Let imagine we have an option from EUR to USD priced in EUR, therefore the payoff for a call is: $$\frac{(S - K)^{+}}{S} = K (1/K - 1/S)^{+}$$ This is basically the payoff of a price of a put on 1/S ...
876 views

### Using QuantLib Python to value FX options using stochastic volatility

I would like to use QuantLib (and in particular the python wrapper) to value FX option using the Heston model. Thanks to http://gouthamanbalaraman.com and all of the articles therein : in particular ...
33 views

### Granger Causality Equation between daily Carry Trade returns and daily Stock Market returns [closed]

Could someone please kindly help me in regards to a question on the Carry Trade. What is the most widely used equation for the carry trade including the funding and investment currency and what ...
129 views

### Volatility surface tenors

I don't think this has been asked before, but are the tenors on a volatility surface out of spot date for the currency pair or out of value T+0?
82 views

### Group name for currencies, equities and other financial products

I am working on a financial software system that deals with crypto currencies. This system has a model called 'Currency' that describes for example 'BTC' and market for which there is a 'base' and '...
228 views

### Risk-neutral density from spot prices?

I am currently working on a university project and I hope someone can help me out with a rather silly question :-) I want to analyse the change in the shape of risk-neutral density functions of spot ...
81 views

### Do Reuters or Eikon have intraday exchange rate data for minor currencies?

I need historical intraday exchange rate data (for a minor european currency - EURRSD) for my thesis. Not necessarily tick by tick - just prices at any interval below an hour will work. I guess there ...
87 views

### FX Average Forward Pricing

Lookin for documentation on how to price FX Arithmetic Average Rate Forwards. Couldn't find any info on textbooks. Any help is very appreciated.
98 views

### how to trade interest rates outside G10

G10 currencies markets have active FRA markets and apart from NOK, SEK and NZD one can also speculate on interest rates through exchange-traded futures. What's the best liquid way to speculate on ...
197 views

### Why isn't a quanto adjustment needed in this case?

Suppose we have a contract with payoff $P_Y$ in currency $Y$, where $P_Y$ on a variable in currency $Y$. To calculate the value in $X$, we take the expected payout under $Y$-numeraire $E_Y(P_Y)$, ...
135 views

### Sending order to Forex or Stocks from Python strategy

I have my own strategy developed in Python. But I couldn't find a reliable method to send, close, and modify orders using Python. Are there any tools that help order management using Python? I also ...
292 views

### What is the instantaneous FX rate and used for a FX Forward?

Could someone please explain me what the instantaneous FX rate corresponds to and why it is used in the valuation of an FX Forward trade? It is defined as: FX_Instantaneous= FX_Spot-(ON+TN) where ...
1k views

### Pricing Uneven FX Swaps

I'm trying to figure out how to price uneven FX swaps. I just started on a FX trading desk and have been told that the all-in rate for a 2-legged FX swap is equal to: 1) Quote for market side of net ...
25 views

### Average monthly exchange rates causes translation error in consolidated books

I newly work for a multinational company with a corporate structure such that during consolidation, the books need to be translated multiple times and sometimes back to the original currency. I've ...
5k views

### Spot/Next and Tom/Next FX forward swaps

could somebody please tell me what is the main difference between Spot/Next and Tom/Next FX forward swaps? I know that both are used to roll spot FX position settlement to 1 day forward but I really ...
84 views

### How can currency (USD/TRY) be going up without having a candle before that would close under it?

I am having a hard time understanding how can USD/TRY be going up without having a period before that would close at a point under it. This is from today (2018-10-08 6:12 and 6:50). Is it moving up ...
155 views

### Is forex trade set up where profit target is twice as far from stop loss is good strategy? [closed]

I was listening to this youtube video and the author is explaining that good way is to set up forex trades in a way where 10 pips in 'losing' direction (Stop loss) and 20 pips in 'winning' direction (...
172 views

### How is FX cross rates options are priced?

Say I have market for EUR/USD and also USD/CAD, how would EUR/CAD would be priced and hedged in practice? What are good papers/book chapters to read on that? (Assuming basic knowledge already on ...
186 views

### When to Choose FX Swap or Forward

Assume we have an exporter who is looking to hedge their USD exposure. How would they decide between choosing a FX swap or a FX forward contract to do so? I understand that a swap has 2 exchanges, ...
766 views

### Implied AUD Interest Rate from USDAUD FX Swap and USD Interest Rate

Can someone help me understand how to derive the implied interest rate or spot rate in BBG FXFA? I actually get why the Forward rate, F_Ask and F_Bid are derived using the formula in the picture. ...
46 views

### Which interest rates (maturity length) should one use for calculating interest rate differential of AUDUSD?

An interest rate differential is a difference in interest rate between two currencies in a pair. It is not clear from the internet articles such as the one below which maturity length should be used ...
188 views

I am trying to price an ATMF FX (say Usdidr) straddle - the fxdelta for call and put leg are quite different with put fxdelta being higher than call delta. (Absolute values) Why would this be the case?...
738 views

### Industry standard for interpolating FX volatilities

I'm looking to replace the FX vol interpolation scheme at my firm, and was wondering what the industry standard was. We used to do vanna-volga, but it only takes 3 points (25dp, atm, 25dc), and so ...
605 views

### What is the formula for calculating fair value of currency futures?

Let's use AUDUSD 6A futures contract as an example. How does the interest rate between AUD and USD give rise to the fair value calculation of AUDUSD 6A futures contract? Besides interest rates, are ...
45 views

### forex backtesting spread cost modeling

For professional level forex trading, what is a reasonable estimate of roundtrip transaction costs (I am talking about major pairs, like EUR/USD).
276 views

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### Software library: Pricing financial instruments, such as FX Forwards

I am currently reading material on how to price financial instruments such as FX Forward deals. One way of doing this seems to be by calculating its Fair ValueĀ³. This value can be split into two ...
161 views

### Dynamically adjusting the size of a Constant Range Bar (on an intraday fx chart)

Constant Range Bars (CRB) is a type of candlestick charting method that does not draw a new candle every unit of time (like every 1/5/15/30 minutes), but every time the range (high-low) of the ...
31 views

### Comparing account equity vs maintenance margin on large number of positions

Forex brokers will start liquidating your positions when your account's equity falls below the maintenance margin set by the broker. ...
504 views

### Known Forex Market Trends

As the title implies, is there anywhere I can find (or would anyone be kind enough to make) a [obviously far from comprehensive] list of known connections between a currencyās trends and world markets....
3k views

### MtM of FX Forward

I had a look at pnl calculation of FX forward but it didn't quite match my question. Say $X_{t,\tau}$ is the USDJPY FX Forward Rate as seen at time $t$ for expiry $t+\tau$. So \$X_{t}^{spot} := X_{t,0}...