Questions tagged [gamma]

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74 views

Long positions (call or put) have positive gamma, and short positions (call or put) have negative gamma

I was reading a lot about the idea that long positions (call or put) have positive gamma, and short positions (call or put) have negative gamma. But I couldn't understand why. In "Bunds and Bund ...
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How do I achieve a Long Gamma, Short Theta Exposure?

How I understand it is that if I: Sell OTM near dated put which will pay high theta and have low gamma Buy ATM long dated put which will have low theta and have higher gamma However, if there is a ...
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2answers
9k views

Gamma Pnl vs Vega Pnl

Why does Gamma Pnl have exposure to realised volatility, but Vega Pnl only has exposure to implied volatility? I am confused as to why gamma pnl is affected (more) by IV and why vega pnl isnt affected ...
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1answer
55 views

Realizing profit with Gamma Trading doubt

Lets suppose we have a delta-neutral portfolio and that we want to trade the gamma. If we are long gamma, we can profit from every rebalancing to keep the portfolio delta-neutral. Lets suppose the ...
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Reference request for equity index gamma modeling

I read this article a while ago https://www.zerohedge.com/markets/all-you-ever-wanted-know-about-gamma-op-ex-and-option-driven-equity-flows and i've found a lot of success trading options using these ...
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1answer
158 views

Gamma PnL from Itô's Lemma derivation

The change in a call portfolio ($f$), derived from Itô's Lemma, is: \begin{align*} \left( \frac{\partial f}{\partial t}+\frac{1}{2}\sigma^2S^2\frac{\partial^2 f}{\partial S^2}\right)\mathrm{d}t &=...
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1answer
57 views

Historical PNL using Taylor Expansion for Gamma Ladders

I have DV01 and Gamma Ladder for IR Swaptions and the historical market data of the underlying swap curve. Can someone please help me understand how to calculate historical PNL using taylor expansion ...
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1answer
112 views

Making portfolio Delta and Gamma neutral using 2 derivatives

We have an option portfolio with delta =2 and gamma 3 and we want to making this portfolio delta and gamma neutral using two derivatives D1 and D2: ...
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0answers
66 views

Vega hedging swaption with caplets - precisely, what will go wrong?

I am trying to form a kind of unified perspective of how (vega) hedging an exotic with vanillas, or hedging a 'basket option' with vanillas will go wrong. So in particular, I want to be able to ...
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2answers
1k views

Is there anywhere I can read the paper, “The Gamma-Vanna-Volga Cost Framework for Constructing Implied Volatility Curves”

Hello there was a paper published by: M. Arslan, G. Eid, J. El Khoury and J. Roth titled "The Gamma-Vanna-Volga Cost Framework for Constructing Implied Volatility Curves" (2009). I believe they ...
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79 views

Vega vs Gamma. Implied vs realized vol

I was reading the answers to this question: Long Gamma vs Vega , but I still I feel I am missing a bit of context. Let's say I am long an European call today. From the plots shown in the second ...
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1answer
72 views

How does delta-gamma VaR work in practice and when can it be preferable to Monte-Carlo VaR?

So I will start off by just stating my understanding of the two methods through some examples and lead that into my question. Hopefully it is correct but if not then perhaps the answer to my question ...
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1answer
185 views

Gamma-Vega Neutral Portfolio Not Possible with Only 3 Options

Let's say we have sold a call option, x, on a share and we have 2 other call options, y & z, with different strikes and maturities to try and achieve a portfolio that is both Gamma and Vega ...
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66 views

Are there trades that long gamma (convexity) and short volatility at the same time?

Likewise, are there trades that short gamma and long volatility at the same time? Under fixed income context, are there trades that short convexity and long volatility at the same time?
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2answers
203 views

Gamma for ATM options with low spots

I'm trying to compute gamma for a vanilla call with spot and strike equal to 0.001. BLACK & SCHOLES formula gave me a value of 554.761 for gamma which is a very high. I have then two questions: ...
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2answers
582 views

Numeric example to understand the effect of option gamma

Gamma of an option is the second partial derivative of the theoretical value of an option wrt the underlying. It should be the rate of change of Delta wrt to a small change on the underlying. However ...
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1answer
87 views

How to prove Gamma is the same for a European call and European put with the same inputs?

I saw from a text "From put-call parity, call and put with the same inputs have the same gamma", but I don't see how put-call parity is related to Gamma. Can someone explain? Thanks!
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452 views

Gamma PnL Formula and Break-Even volatility

When we derive the P&L of a delta hedged option we obtain: $$ \text{P&L}=\dfrac{1}{2}\Gamma(\delta S)^{2}-\theta\delta t $$ and setting equal to zero and rearranging we obtain: $$ \dfrac{1}{...
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1answer
305 views

What does “Gamma profit/loss” mean?

I understand the Greeks as derivatives, but I'm very confused with terms like "Gamma profit/loss""Theta profit/loss". What do these terminologies mean? I've searched online but can't find a proper ...
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1answer
699 views

Variance of cash gamma (or dollar gamma)

Let us assume we are in the Black-Scholes model. Is there a closed formula for the variance of the cash-gamma? I define cash gamma as $CG = S_t^2 * \Gamma(t,S_t)$, assuming interest rates are 0 to ...
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3answers
4k views

What really is Gamma scalping?

How does Gamma scalping really work? It seems there is no true profit scalped. If we look at the simplest scenario, Black-Scholes option price $V(t,S)$ at time $t$ and the underlying stock price at $S$...
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1answer
4k views

Gamma Imbalance Explanation

Can someone please give me an explanation as to what put-call gamma imbalance specifically refers to (imbalance of what?), and why they may exacerbate volatility from a market perspective, and why the ...
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2answers
674 views

Expectation of Gamma times S$^2$ in Black-Scholes model

Can somebody prove that: $$E[S_t^2 \times \Gamma(t,S_t)] = S_0^2 \times \Gamma(0,S_0)$$ where $S_t$ follows a lognormal process as in the Black-Scholes model, and Gamma is the second derivative $\...
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1answer
2k views

What is the formula for beta weighted delta and gamma?

I am trying to calculate the beta weighted delta and gamma for a portfolio of options of different underlying stocks, but I can't seem to find the correct formula. Can someone point me to it or a ...
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2answers
826 views

Conceptual explanation of the relationship between gamma and vega plotted against delta for a European call option

I recently plotted Gamma and Vega against Delta for a European call option and found that the graphs look very similar. This makes sense to me mathematically since the two formulas are pretty much the ...
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2answers
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Greeks and options hedging

Why is it that theta is sometimes taken as the proxy for gamma of the underlying asset in options hedging?
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1answer
312 views

Delta hedging/Gamma PnL

Suppose I am long USDIDR straddle with my start of the day delta being USD10m long IDR and USDIDR gamma being $5m. There is a 1% intra-day IDR strengthening, so my delta becomes roughly long IDR 15m....
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3answers
132 views

How to compute gamma for at-the-money regular calls and puts when they approach expiration to avoid explosion of portfolio's gamma?

When and at-the-money regular call or put approaches expiration, gamma tends to infinity. However, for practical purposes, there is only a finite change in delta. The problem is that if any of the ...
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1answer
966 views

Is short-gamma inherently a losing strategy?

With regards to a recent blowup of optionsellers.com - several analysts (specially on Quora) are blaming it on their strategy of being short gamma i.e. selling options. Is it correct to call short-...
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1answer
567 views

Delta-Gamma VaR question on inputs (do I need only one delta or the delta for the past 500 days?)

When calculating a VaR using the Delta-Gamma approach, I am supposed to use this formula: ∆(V) = Delta * ∆(X) + 0.5 * Gamma * ∆(X)² where: ∆(V) = change in value of the asset in portfolio ∆(X) = ...
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1answer
799 views

Swaptions Gamma Interview Questions

A while ago, I interviewed for a trader role and was given the below assignment (I didn't get the job). I wanted to revisit the questions to learn from my mistakes and be better prepared next time. ...
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Can prediction of realized volatility for next day improve delta hedging (gamma scalping)?

Im quite confused. As I understand from standard delta PNL of option + underlying position, pnl is equals to difference between realized and implied vol weighted by gamma. However, as I understood, ...
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1answer
564 views

Bucketed gamma for swaptions

For a long 7Y1Y payer swaption, I understand that the overall gamma will be positive. I see gamma to be positive in 7Y tenor and negative in 8Y - why would that be the case? Intuitively, how would ...
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0answers
153 views

Beginner question on Black Scholes

Would you please confirm whether my understanding is correct please? (Sorry a lot of questions...) 1) BS is derived based on the assumption that during an infinitesimal time, we can replicate the ...
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1answer
317 views

If you have a delta-hedged position and you're short gamma, why are spot price movements bad?

I simply can't wrap my head around the concept of Gamma. I've read multiple sites and explanations and for some reason can't wrap my head around the logic, so I feel that it'll really help for me to ...
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2answers
1k views

Gamma/delta dynamics in the Black Scholes model and it's relation to PnL (Basic of option theory)

If we are in a Black Scholes setup and a I have a Call option and hedged it by shorting delta amount of its underlying. What does the second derivative of the call with respect to Price of the ...
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2answers
582 views

Gamma portfolio trading

It is being said that in a long-gamma portfolio, you follow a buy-low sell-high strategy for the underlying stock, which causes you to make profit. The Theta for this portfolio is negative. But it is ...
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1answer
398 views

construct an option portfolio on a single asset that is both Long Gamma and short vega

everyone, I have come across this question. How can we construct a portfolio that is both Long Gamma and short Vega and how do we actually hedge long Gamma/short vega position?
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2k views

Gamma Imbalance / Exposure

I am currently writing my thesis about the lack of volatility / changing market structure we see nowadays on the financial market. I believe an important factor in this development is the delta-...
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47 views

Calculate latest underlying price (or option), given new option (or underlying) market price?

Given a reference underlying price, reference option price, delta and gamma, if I receive a new underlying/option price what equation should I use to calculate the respective option/underlying price (...
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1answer
920 views

Interpretation of an option gamma larger than one

I am working on an option hedging simulation. In this context, I wanted to expand the simulation to include gamma. For testing purposes, I used among others the natural gas futures. When I calculate ...
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2answers
4k views

American Options relation between greeks

Considering an American option in a Black-Scholes model, is there a relation between Vega and Gamma as it holds in the European case? I am aware an exact relation would be difficult to find. But in ...
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102 views

gamma-weighted SOIR

I came across a term 'gamma-weighted SOIR' several times recently. it seem like an old term on gamma imbalance. could someone care to explain what this is and the rationale behind it?
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4answers
8k views

What is the intuitive reason why the Gamma and the Theta tend to have the opposite sign?

Quoting Hull's book: When gamma is positive, theta tends to be negative. The portfolio declines in value if there is no change in S, but increases in value if there is a large positive or ...
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0answers
2k views

Short Call Hedge. Options and gamma trading

Let’s say a trader sells a Short Call with strike 100 (for making profit with the premium) at-the-money (for highest extrinsic value there). For hedging until expiration, he buys the underlying share ...
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1answer
346 views

Gamma of a Lookback Option

From this book, http://docs.finance.free.fr/Options/Exotic_Options_Trading.pdf, it states that The gamma profile of a Max lookback option becomes intuitive when viewing it as a ladder option. ...
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What should $T$ be when gamma trading?

I am studying some gamma trading, and there's one thing I don't understand. On the option we are hedging, what should its expiry $T$ be, and for how long should we do the trade? What I mean is, is it ...
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1answer
107 views

How does gamma trading depend on $K$?

If we think realized vol > implied vol, then we might go ahead and delta hedge a call, hoping that profits from gamma outweigh the decay. Question: What should $K$ be on the call? ATM? If so, why? ...
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1answer
9k views

Proof of gamma profit formula

http://www.volcube.com/resources/options-articles/gamma-hedging-trading-strategies-part-i/ I would like to have proven to me the above formula, mostly because I don't quite understand it. The formula ...
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3answers
14k views

How do we know if the volatility which is quoted in market is Normal (Bachelier model) or log normal (Black 76)?

In markets, many instruments are quoted in volatility, but how we can tell what kind of volatility is this? Is it normal volatility, or lognormal volatility. because it affect our hedging positions. ...