Questions tagged [greeks]

Greeks are named quantities representing sensitivity of option price to change in underlying parameters. Use of [greeks] tag should relate to one more named quantities, such as delta or gamma.

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379 views

If you have a delta-hedged position and you're short gamma, why are spot price movements bad?

I simply can't wrap my head around the concept of Gamma. I've read multiple sites and explanations and for some reason can't wrap my head around the logic, so I feel that it'll really help for me to ...
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1answer
842 views

MTM Hedging Performance of Vanna-Volga

I was wondering how well Vanna-Volga (VV) Implied Vols "perform". So I experimented with the following option parameters $$S_0=100,\ K=92,\ r=0.03,\ q=0.01,\ T=2$$ and VV parameters $$K_1,K_2,K_3=...
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127 views

Theta from Black-Scholes PDE - is it possible to use implied volatility?

There is a need to derive theta $\theta$ of an option out of standard Black-Scholes PDE. In usual notation ($P$ - price of an option, $S$ - underlying spot): $\theta=r_dP−Sr_d\delta−\frac{1}{2}\...
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2answers
1k views

Gamma/delta dynamics in the Black Scholes model and it's relation to PnL (Basic of option theory)

If we are in a Black Scholes setup and a I have a Call option and hedged it by shorting delta amount of its underlying. What does the second derivative of the call with respect to Price of the ...
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81 views

Computing Malliavin Derivative for European Call Payoff

Let $X_t$ be a continuous local-martingale modeling the stock price given by $$ X_t = \int_0^t \sigma_t(T,K)dW_t , $$ and $\sigma_t(T,K)$ is an $L^2$-measurable process not adapted to $W_t$'s ...
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2answers
982 views

Which barrier option has negative gamma?

As said in my book, there exists a kind of barrier option which has negative gamma. I tried the knock in and knock out option, their gamma are positive. Could anyone provide an example where a barrier ...
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1answer
414 views

Floating Strike Lookback Delta Risk

I'm running through some delta hedging simulations of floating strike lookback call options (that is, I'm short the options) during a volatile (downside) period for the underlying and some very odd ...
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1answer
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Can we 'predict' the delta of a stock? The delta of a stock is $\pm 1$ right? [closed]

“A stock is like a living organism. A sparrow, say. And we are able to create an emergent-based abstraction of that sparrow, which closely approximates the sparrow itself, accounting for migration ...
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How to derive the Greek theta from Black-Scholes solution formula?

Which are the steps to compute the theta greek from the BS solution: $$c(t, x) = xN(d_+(T-t,x)) - K e ^{-r(T-t)}N(d_-(T-t,x))$$ with: $$ d_\pm (T-t, x) = \dfrac{1}{\sigma \sqrt{T-t}} \left[ \ln \...
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2answers
4k views

American Options relation between greeks

Considering an American option in a Black-Scholes model, is there a relation between Vega and Gamma as it holds in the European case? I am aware an exact relation would be difficult to find. But in ...
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63 views

The interpretation of discounted Greeks

I understand that Delta measures the rate of change of the theoretical option value with respect to the change of the underlying asset price. This also represents the number of shares a call option ...
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9k views

What is the intuitive reason why the Gamma and the Theta tend to have the opposite sign?

Quoting Hull's book: When gamma is positive, theta tends to be negative. The portfolio declines in value if there is no change in S, but increases in value if there is a large positive or ...
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2answers
240 views

Attempt of an analytical proof that a call price decreases as its strike increases

I'm stuck trying to analytically prove that a partial derivative of a specific, lower defined function $C$ is negative. The context of this problem is actually a Black-Scholes market situation, where ...
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2answers
2k views

Delta Hedging with fixed Implied Volatility to get rid of vega?

I'm wondering if i should use a floating IV or a fixed IV to delta hedge my options every day. I've read this post but would like different information : Delta Hedging with fixed Implied Volatility ...
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386 views

Is the replication porfolio for a European Call, self financing for changes in time?

I was reading slide 29 here: http://people.hss.caltech.edu/~jlr/courses/BEM103/Readings/JWCh11.pdf (mirror) Sub-heading: "An interpretation of the Black-Scholes formula" It is saying that the below ...
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214 views

Adjoint Algorithmic Differentiation: swap pricing

I have tried to implement an AAD routine to price call options using the Black-Scholes formula, but my greeks are not quite agreeing with the expected ones, so I have decided to start with something a ...
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559 views

How to validate option greeks/implied volatility data calculated in-house using Black model on a mass scale in an automated fashion?

I have created a platform that computes implied volatility, option theo prices and greeks using Black 1976 model. I use this platform to calculate above mentioned numbers for a variety of options ...
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147 views

How to consider open interest & volume change in option pricing?

Is there publically available option pricing model or theory that considers open interest/volume % change? I believe that laws of supply and demand effect options like any tradable good. However, I ...
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1answer
1k views

Delta on Bond Future Options

When talking about Options on Bond Future on CME (American options), we have 2 definitions of Delta and Gamma. One is 'Price Delta/Gamma' and one is 'Interest Rate Delta/Gamma'. My understanding is ...
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3answers
583 views

Derivation of BS PDE problem using Delta hedging

I've always been confused with Delta hedging. It is well-known that for a (smooth enough) function of $(S,t)$ we have, due to Ito's lemma, that: \begin{eqnarray*} dC = \left(\frac{\partial C}{\partial ...
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Estimate Options Delta By Hand [duplicate]

Underlying = 100 K = 90 1 year Put at K is trading 5. What's the approximate delta of the put?
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651 views

Finding the delta and gamma with historical data

I have a complicated product with knock-out barriers combined with other exotic options. I am curious if there is a fast and loose way to figure out the delta, gamma, rho, theta and possibly vega, ...
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1answer
3k views

From Delta to moneyness or strike

If I have volatility smile quoted with respect to the delta of an option on the forward, how can I convert this delta into the moneyness or strike of the option? Is there any bult-in function of ...
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1answer
400 views

Gamma of a Lookback Option

From this book, http://docs.finance.free.fr/Options/Exotic_Options_Trading.pdf, it states that The gamma profile of a Max lookback option becomes intuitive when viewing it as a ladder option. ...
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3answers
228 views

A more mathematically rigorous explanation for why in the B-S model, the expected return on a call goes down as the stock price goes up

A problem asks whether the following statement is true assuming the Black-Scholes Framework: The expected return on a call option goes up as the stock price goes up. The solution is: The statement ...
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800 views

Greeks for a portfolio? PnL for gamma trading

I am a little bit confusded with respect to the PnL of a delta-neutral portfolio. We have $$d\Pi = \Theta dt + \frac{1}{2} \Gamma \Delta S^2$$ So, if our portfolio consists of 1 call options, and ...
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1answer
618 views

Why is the dividend risk of an option equal to its delta?

In this document, https://www.eurexgroup.com/blob/2435406/f1b0086a8c6d05954c58a8dc24308c81/data/20160304_Colin-Bennent-Trading-Volatility-.pdf, it states that "This is because the dividend risk of ...
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1answer
447 views

Simulation of the Vega in Heston model (for Asian Option)

I'm new here and I hope you guys can help me. I want to calculate/simulate the Vega for my Asian option in the Heston model. The only source I found is the paper of Broadie/Kaya (2004) but they just ...
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186 views

Relative Value Trading of American Style Options on Futures, Calcuating hedging ratios?

I am interested in Relative Value Trading of American style options on futures and have not found a whole lot of literature on it. The best resource I have discovered so far is a few pages in Colin ...
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14k views

What is the relationship between Time-To-Expiry and Delta?

Is there any regular relationship between Delta and the Time-To-Expiry of an option? I have observed that options that expiry sooner are more sensitive to underlying movements (with equal strikes). ...
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2answers
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formula for physical DV01 of interest rate swap

Most answers to the question "what is the dv01 of an interest rate swap" are along the lines of: "compute the difference between the price of the swap and its price using a curve perturbed by 1 basis ...
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1answer
1k views

Proving that the $\Delta$ of a call on a futures contract under the B-S model is $N(d_1)$

The author of my textbook says that the $\Delta$ of a call on a futures contract is $N(d_1)$ and not $e^{-rT}N(d_1)$. I wasn't convinced, so I tried to prove this. Let $F = F_{0, T}(S) = S_0e^{(r - \...
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2answers
2k views

Why is the Vega positive?

We know that in the Black-Scholes model, the Vega of a European call option is always positive. This can be proved easily, so my question is not really about the result per se. My problem is that I ...
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1answer
821 views

Hedging and measuring repo rate risk

How is repo rate risk hedged? And is repo rate dv01 the usual greek for this? i am talking about repo risk in a derivative on a bond
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1answer
247 views

I have an interview for an assistant trader, need your help with some questions

Hello all hope you're doing fine! Would you please help me answering these questions? 1) We're short a call option and we delta hedge. We know that there will be a move in the underlying asset ...
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969 views

Mathematical underpinnings of the square root of time rule

Often when I am reading about options pricing (and/or options greeks) the square root of time continually comes up. What the mathematical justification for why this keeps on turning up?
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7k views

Long/Short Vega and Option Positions

Why do you get long vega when you buy an option and short vega when you sell an option? I would have thought that for both buying and selling options the vega would change according to whether the ...
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1answer
1k views

How much can be said about the Greeks without picking a model?

Let $C(S, K, \sigma, r, T)$ be the price of a call option. How much can be said about the Greeks without picking a model? Or at least without full Black-Scholes? Below, I write down everything I know ...
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in long term options on equities, what is the greek used for security lending rate, and what formula do you use?

in long term options on equities, what is the greek used for for security lending rate, and what formula do you use? would it often move contrary to moves in risk free (ois) and so in practice is it ...
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364 views

Calculating Greeks for basket option

I am stuck with obtaining nice relative error of my analytical derivative of a function. I am comparing values of my function at points $x$ and $x+ \delta$ and the difference does not coincide with ...
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1answer
2k views

SVI model and Greeks calculation

The option pricing model I am referring to is this one: Arbitrage-free SVI volatility surfaces I calibrated that model by using a set of European options, now I have a set of 5 parameters per ...
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2answers
543 views

why Delta increases as interest rate increases

I just would like to know why $\Delta$ increases as $r$ increases. I would like an intuitive answer, without model (I can compute my greeks myself). Thanks
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1answer
762 views

The Greeks of a stochastic volatility model: what's the purpose?

let's take delta; What can the delta of a Heston model be used for? I know it can used for hedging strategies, but can we say something about the market and the model by looking at the delta. Can we ...
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1answer
1k views

Calculation of option Greek (sensitiviety) theta via finite difference

I am able to get good approximations for delta, gamma, and rho via finite difference method, but not theta. I believe my issue is the value of h. Theta is basically the difference between the price ...
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1answer
459 views

Why are the greeks for the underlying stock 0 with the exception of delta?

In my textbook that I am self-studying from it is given that (assuming the Black-Scholes framework): $\Delta_{stock} = \partial S / \partial S = 1$ All other Greeks for the underlying stock = 0 I ...
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544 views

How do I calculate the probability of a short option position expiring worthless?

I want to be able to determine the probability of a short option position (call or put) expiring worthless. Don't know where to start but I see probabilities derived from the greeks on some web sites?...
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2k views

What is the “inflation delta” of an option?

I'm preparing a report on the different Greeks used in risk measurement, and my boss mentioned the inflation delta within the first-order Greeks (and the Inflation Vega, but I guess that if I figure ...
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6k views

derive vega for black schole call from this formula?

Is it possible to get the right formula for vega of a call option under the black scholes model from this formula? $$\frac{\partial{C}}{\partial{\sigma}}=\frac{S_0}{\sqrt{2\pi}}{e^\frac{-d_+^2}{2}}(\...
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2answers
388 views

why Implied Vol (VIX) increase with decrease in Stock Price or vice versa?

why Implied Vol (VIX) increase with decrease in Stock Price or vice versa? whereas Vega is positively related with change in option price to change in stock price.
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1answer
347 views

Accurately calculating Greeks for options near expiration

I understand that when a vanilla European option is near expiry, the Theta calculated from BS formula is very inaccurate and almost meaningless for practical use. However, I'm not sure if other ...