Questions tagged [hedging]

[Think of it as insurance. When people decide to hedge, they are insuring themselves against a negative event. This doesn't prevent a negative event from happening, but if it does happen and you're properly hedged, the impact of the event is reduced. So, hedging occurs almost everywhere, and we see it everyday.](http://www.investopedia.com/articles/basics/03/080103.asp)

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Delta Hedging with a Different Underlying

In Bouzoubaa and Osseiran page 68 equation 5.3, the authors discuss delta hedging a call written for asset $S_1$ using a different but correlated underlying asset $S_2$. The authors provide the ...
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Replicating a bond

In Shreve's Stochastic Calculus for Finance Volume II, section 6.5, page 273, Shreve talks about pricing a zero-coupon bond. A zero-coupon bond is a contract promising to pay a certain "face&...
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How to price OTC swaps to hedge non-economic cashflow variability

Suppose we have a stochastic cashflow $X_t$ from a portfolio of contracts with clients. We can simulate from $X_t$ and can calculate $E[X_t], \forall t \in [1,n]$ where $n$ represents the longest ...
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Gamma PnL when hedging with implied volatility - where is the mark to market PnL?

It is well known that hedging with implied volatility involves a PnL: $0.5*(σ^{2}_r−σ^{2}_i)S^{2}*Γ_{i}dt$ In the Wilmott paper (http://web.math.ku.dk/~rolf/Wilmott_WhichFreeLunch.pdf), they imply ...
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hedge ratio, calculating exposure and perfect hedge

Hi I know how to get the hedge ratio it is 0.9 but what is the companies exposure is it just 1 million? Once I know exposure I can calculate the rest of part (a). For part (b) I can someone explain ...
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How do you price an option on fresh corn?

I'm preparing for quant interviews, and I had this question for myself. I'm not actually trading corn options. My goal here is just to better understand how to deal with these kinds of options. ...
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Backtesting Hedged Equity Portfolio with Options

I am trying to find some papers and methodologies on backtesting an Equity portfolio with broad-based index options as hedge. For example, take SPY and systematically hedge it with 9 months 30 delta ...
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83 views

Purpose of Vega Hedging

I am trying to understand the principle of vega hedging. When should a market maker vega hedge his position ? Let's suppose that a market maker delta and gamma hedge himself, and carries his position (...
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69 views

Is it wiser to hedge downside risk with put options on an ETF, or Leveraged ETF, of the same index?

My pre-suppositions I must hedge against a POSSIBLE market crash. But I can't predict if and when. I hold no beliefs on volatility. Small caps crash faster than large caps. My question I plan to ...
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Why "hedging motives" and "heterogeneous preferences" are explanation for "under diversification puzzle"?

Han et al. 2021 documented something relating to the "under diversification puzzle": Standard explanations for under diversification include hedging motives and heterogeneous preferences, ...
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Delta hedging error in B-S (hedging with implied vol) question

I have been thinking about this for a while and am at my wits end. Now assume I am pricing a call at implied vol $s$, whereas the realized volatility is $σ$. Let $C$ be the incorrect pricing function. ...
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Simple hedging technique comparison question: forward market vs money market

I am trying to do some self studying and came across this question. I am not sure how I would analyze these hedging strategies to figure out which is better. Could you give me any help on how I could ...
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Currency hedging 3 month sterling libor futures

Each libor contract is 500,000 gbp. Can I hedge it by going short 8 gbp/usd futures per libor to hedge out currency risk considering each gbp/usd futures is 62,500 British pounds?
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Delta hedging the day before expiry

In practice, how do people usually delta hedge options the day before expiry? Would you still use the black Scholes delta and then close out the position in the underlying immediately after expiry? ...
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Net delta and gamma profile of a put spread

I have a question regarding the description in Simon Gleadall's book -- option gamma trading which you can find a copy HERE. The following paragraph he discussed about gamma and delta profile of a ...
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Black-Scholes Call Portfolio: Bond Weight Interpretation

$$C - \frac{P(z_{1})}{k(y, \tau)} \cdot S + \frac{P(z_{2})}{k(r,\tau)} \cdot F = 0$$ $$C - \Delta \cdot + w_{2} \cdot F = 0$$ OK, so with $\Delta$ I am hedging my directional risk, but what is $w_{2}$?...
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Why are implied parameters preferred over expectations of future implied parameters?

For example, when we price options on assets under the Heston model, we often compute the volatility of the volatility of the price of those assets implied by the market at time $t=0$ using the market ...
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238 views

Trade anything?

I have a question after reading the post below. https://www.onlinebetting.org.uk/betting-guides/can-you-bet-on-anything-you-want.html Question: I want to bet on a niche topic or asset or anything that ...
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General question regarding delta heding

I was wondering if I have to take the strike prices of options into consideration when doing a gamma and delta hedging. As an example, let's suppose that I have 2 positions: a long position call ...
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How to find percentage of FX exposure hedged through financial statements

I am analyzing a company's annual report, and wish to find the percentage of FX exposure they have already hedged. I have the following information: The net FX exposure for 4 different years The ...
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102 views

Barrier shift consideration in delta hedging down and in puts (PDI)?

I have a question regarding the barrier shift used when risk managing a down and in put (PDI). I'm reading Exotic Options Trading by Frans de Weert and he gave this example. Trader is long one PDI 100/...
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Should you hedge theta?

Consider an arbitraty interest rate derivative $C$. Assume that in order to hedge it, you are allowed to construct portfolio $H$ of linear combination of simple instruments such as Interest Rate Swaps ...
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What are the most common ways that quantitative funds construct industry/style-neutral factor portfolios?

For instance, consider momentum strategies. Naive portfolio construction will likely load on large style/industry return components, which increases portfolio risk dramatically. How do quant funds ...
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337 views

What is the point of hedging in this scenario?

I'm new to this stuff, and have the following question: In John C. Hulls book the following scenario is presented: on May 15 we enter into a contract to sell 1 mill barrels of oil for the market price ...
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Mark Joshi's book - quant interview questions

I am currently doing the question on pricing the option with payoff: $$\max (S(S-K),0).$$ On the relevant question section, it's asked why would a bank be reluctant to sell such option? I can't really ...
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Implementing a hedging strategy for oil future options

I am currently writing a paper examining two models for pricing options on WTI Crude oil futures, and I want to backtest hedging strategies from both model and compare them against each other. However,...
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Empircal data analysis delta hedge error of Black-Scholes by Mark Davis

Regarding Mark Davis derivation of the delta-hedging error occuring in the black-scholes as a result of difference in realized volatility and implied volatily. The formula reads as follows: $$ Z_t = \...
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196 views

A decent model to calculate hedges

Is there an option pricing model that wouldn't be too time consuming to set up in Python (for example) and that would provide better delta hedges than Black-Scholes? This would be mainly for equity ...
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delta hedge asset exchange option with futures on spreads

say I have an option that exchange A with B. If I can only hedge it using futures on the spreads between them, how would I do it?
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201 views

FX Hedging costs when using 3m FX Fowards vs XCCY swaps for an IG Bond

Suppose I want to hedge the FX exposure of an USD Corp Bond(held to maturity) to GBP and I can choose between rolling 3m FX Forwards and XCCY swaps. How can I estimate the difference in the hedging ...
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Are there any studies on the link between energy markets and hedging-strategies for Cryptocurrency mining?

Full Disclaimer: I first asked this question on Bitcoin.SE, however I feel like my question is more relevant to this site as there would be wider knowledge and insight of some better sources or ...
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Delta hedge error black-scholes by Mark Davis

I'm currently reading a paper by Mark Davis in which he talks about a delta hedging error in the Black-Scholes formula. The delta hedging error is given expressed as $Z_t$ with the formula: $$Z_t = \...
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Extracting the OAS out of an MBS?

I was reading about OAS and I'm wonder how one could "extract" (or "capture") the OAS out of a product by hedging out all the other risks. One of the explanations I got from OAS ...
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156 views

Hedging with FX swaps

I am trying to get the mechanic of the swap rollover. Funds usually hedge FX risk of their long term foreign assets (eg UST) with short term FX swaps (usually maturity < 1yr), by rolling over fx ...
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Confusion regarding hedge calculation

this might not be the most advanced question, but hopefully this is the right community. Suppose that we have an asset with return $R_a$, a respective benchmark with return $R_b$ and the risk-free ...
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133 views

Correlation for Trading vs. Risk Management

Assume a portfolio that contains some asset A and that I am contemplating hedging my delta in A by taking a position in asset B. I would determine how much of B to buy/sell based on the linear ...
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MSCI World and MSCI World future: low correlation, how come?

Noticed today that hedging the MSCI World (NTR, div reinvested) by shorting it's very own future (same underlying index, also NTR) leaves a lot of active risk. This is explained by low correlation ...
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Equities Market Making Hedging, and Hedging Against the Effects of Hedging?

I was hoping someone could enlighten me as to how equity option market makers hedge in general, and whether they account for the effects of their purchases on the underlying share price when hedging ...
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Arbitrage portfolio example

Can you give me a concrete example of a self financing portfolio which gives arbitrage opportunity in the two-dimensional Black-Scholes model? By the two-dimensional Black-Scholes model I mean $$dS_{1}...
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Who hedges (more): options seller or options buyer?

When the open interest increases, this means that there is a buyer and a seller of that option. Both seller and buyer are behooved to hedge their positions, with the opposite sign; but I doubt that ...
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Best way to lock in margin rate via hedging

I'm currently paying a 1.25% margin rate. This rate is based on the Fed Funds rate plus a margin. I would like to hedge against the possibility of this margin rate increasing. What is the best/...
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How does a hedged portfolio account for other greeks?

So a classic delta-hedged portfolio on a call option is: $$-C - \Phi(d) \cdot B + \frac{d}{dS}C \cdot S = 0$$ How is risk of other Greeks hedged? Is it something like this? $$-C - \Phi(d') \cdot B + \...
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Non convertible currencies and trade

How importers and exporters sell/buys products if their country currency is non convertible or when non residents want to invest in the country? For example in Brazil.
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Non attainable claim - Incomplete market

I am wondering whether there is a standard procedure to find a non attainable (i.e. non replicable) asset in an incomplete market. As an example, let us have the following market ($B = (B^1, B^2, B^3)$...
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Which exact interest rate should I use for valuing equity index futures (ie. SPX, MXEA)?

I'm trying to build a model that values futures for equity indicies like SPX. For example, this product link here. I know that the model is simple (please correct me if I'm wrong): $$ S_{T} =S_{0}e^{(...
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ETF Market Making - Locking profits via hedging

I am interested in deeply understanding the way ETF market makers operate to profit. I already know that market makers profit from buying at the bid price and selling at the ask price, and I am also ...
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127 views

Calculating vega in Heston?

I often see Vega in the Heston model specified as: \begin{align*} \nu & = \frac{\partial C}{\partial v} = \frac{\partial C}{\partial v_0} 2 \sqrt{v_0} \end{align*} where $v = \sqrt{...
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Hedging strategy for payoff $\int_0^T\log S_u\mathrm{d}u$

What would a hedging strategy look like for a payoff $\int_0^T\log S_u\mathrm{d}u$? I have determined under Black-Scholes stock dynamics, $$\int_0^T\log S_u\mathrm{d}u=\int_0^t\log S_u\mathrm{d}u+\...
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200 views

Delta hedging for an American call option on a stock with a continuous dividend yield

Let the dividend yield be $\delta$ and $C_u, C_d$ and $S_u, S_d$ be the up and down values for the stock and the call respectively over the period $\Delta t$. In Hull and all other resources I've ...
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Static vs Dynamic Hedging: when is each one used?

I understand that, in Static Hedging, you don't have to keep rebalancing the offsetting position(s) while in Dynamic Hedging you have to constantly keep re-adjusting it. What I'm not clear on is when ...

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