# Questions tagged [leverage]

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### Leverage and Tracking difference

I am a little confused. I have calculated the tracking difference of an Index and a n ETF using the return getting 0,4% tracking difference per year. I have then leveraged both, the Index and the ETF ...
60 views

### How to programmatically define financial leverage?

Financial leverage could be easily described as the tool that allows traders to multiply returns at the cost of multiplying also the risk involved in every trade. So, for instance, if a stock today ...
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### Leverage constraints

I am trying to complete my project on Mean-Variance Leverage Optimization, and I have found lots of helpful advice on this forum. I wanted to ask you if you have some idea on how to implement a ...
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### Simulated Sharpe Ratio Calculation for Leveraged Portfolio

I've written some VBA code to simulate the effect of borrowing money, investing it, and repaying the loan daily. PseduoCode: Start with a portfolio value of P = 1 Each day borrow P, invest 2*P, ...
135 views

### The leverage effect for futures contract

Given the daily price data of equity and government-bond futures contracts, how can I identify the leverage effect (when prices move down, the volatility of prices increases), and see if it is ...
100 views

### What does leverage have to do with beta? [closed]

Given a portfolio $P$ with return $R$ and market-beta $\beta$, we have $$E (R - R_f) = \beta (E R_M - R_f)$$ Now, what does leveraging $P$ have to do with $\beta$? How it is affected if we leverage ...
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### Understanding Leverage specifically when there is loss [closed]

Leverage helps the trader to trade with more than what is available in the trader's account. Lets say I trade long 10 BTC/USD at 7000 USD using leverage of 1:10 (i.e i deposited 7000 USD). Now if the ...
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### What does leverage lower than 1 means for ETFs

I've recently noticed in my IB terminal that many ETFs have leverage lower than 1. I understand that some ETFs have leverage higher than 1 for example TQQQ because ...
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### Why does rebalancing leveraged portfolios buy winners and sell losers?

From "Diversification Return and Leveraged Portfolios" by EDWARD QIAN at http://www.master272.com/finance/memoire_2016/qian_diversification_return.pdf Consider again a two-asset 200/100 portfolio ...
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### Volatility of a leveraged CFD portfolio

I want to calculate the portfolio volatility (as a weighted average of the products) and the portfolio consists of CFD contracts with multipliers ranging from 10 to 50 depending on the underlying ...
184 views

### How does short selling affect the leverage of a portfolio?

I know that if you short a stock you borrow it from a broker, immediately sell it, and then buy it back at (hopefully) a lower price. But I don't understand how it impacts the leverage of a portfolio....
370 views

### Leveraged Permanent Portfolio Using ITM Call Options

The permanent portfolio proposed by Harry Browne has had an excellent track record since the 1970's. It is able to compound at roughly 8% annually with a Sharpe ratio around 0.7. The permanent ...
141 views

### Are leveraged ETFs cheaper than using leverage?

Is using leveraged ETF cheaper than borrowing money and buying regular 1x ETF? Let's assume that we're rebalancing daily and interest rate for borrowing is something like 2.66% (taken from Interactive ...
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### Long Term investment in leveraged ETFs not necessarily bad?

I have conducted very much research about leveraged ETFs lately. Most sources specifically say that these instruments are not meant for long-term investments and that they are very risky due to the ...
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### Do I need that extra cash to exercise call or put options?

Suppose I buy certain number of at-the-money call or put options, and if I want to exercise those options before the expiry date, then do I need to have the cash needed to buy the entitled amount of ...
451 views

### Optimal f (position sizing) without look ahead bias

My goal is to identify a systematic way to position sizing in the futures market. Let assume that I'm an investor with log utility. In addition, let assume that I'm reluctant in estimating the ...
440 views

### In FX trading, is the risk for long positions higher than for short positions, or vice versa?

Having done FX trading as a hobby for nearly two years now (and having made some profit overall), I now have got a fundamental question which I think I already have the answer to, but I would like to ...
1k views

### How exactly does “arranged financing” work?

Prime brokers offer what is called "arranged financing" which allows hedge funds to gain maximum leverage - more than allowed under the Portfolio Financing platform. I understand there is an element ...
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### Should the Sharpe ratio of a portfolio change when it is leveraged?

I am trying to understand why the Sharpe ratio changes (increases) when I simulate leveraging my portfolio by multiplying all the time series of daily returns by a leverage factor (e.g. 5). I ...
322 views

### Examples of risk-seeking utility functions?

In the past, most literature assumed a risk-averse investor to model utility preferences. This includes the CRRA and CARA utility functions. In recent papers, researchers state that investors may be ...
302 views

### How can factor certificates achieve constant leverage?

How does a bank which offers a factor certificate with unlimited maturity, e.g. a certificate which promises the holder to change in value in a constant proportion with respect to a change in the ...
172 views

### What does it mean for an option strategy to be leveraged

Probably a newbie question, but what do traders mean when they say that an option strategy is leveraged ? And when can we say that it is the case ?
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### positive financial leverage in real estate

I had the understanding that leverage always helped improve cash on cash returns so long as the interest paid was less than the unlevered rate of return/cap rate. doing a quick back of the envelope ...
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### Leveraged ETF calculation - dropping below zero?

I'm running some simulations with a leveraged ETF to investigate that notorious leveraged-ETF decay effect I keep hearing about. When I put in a typical Black-Scholes lognormal model of returns on the ...
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### How to trade leveraged ETFs

Leveraged ETFs (LETFs) are known to lose value over time due to the "volatility decay" effect. What're the most common strategies for trading LETFs to take advantage of this volatility effect? Also, ...
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### Why use leverage when it does not improve the risk/reward ratio? [closed]

Leverage will increase gains when things go right but will also increase losses when things go wrong. Mathematically speaking, it does not change the risk/reward ratio (or does it?). Since investing/...
490 views

### Measuring and proxies for leverage in the financial system

It can be argued that the leverage - reflected by how much collateral people or firms need to put down to borrow and might lose if they fail to pay the loan back - used in the financial system is one ...
361 views

### Leveraged and inverse leveraged ETFs - what is the exact defintion?

I just had a quick look at the daily returns for a few pairs of leveraged ETFs - it appears that the percent daily returns do not match perfectly. For instance, looking at FAS/FAZ, the returns for the ...
19k views

### What is the “leverage effect” for stocks?

I've read the so-called "leverage-effect" for stocks models the fact that if a company is leveraged, its volatility should increase as the stock price moves lower and closer to the level of debt. Can ...
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### Calculating portfolio VaR for (custom) leveraged products

I have been searching online for a few days regarding how to calculate portfolio VaR for a portfolio consisting of leveraged products - but so far, I have not been able to come up with anything ...
281 views

### what is a typical way forex brokerages can provide cheap leverage for their customers?

I'm not very well read in the area of high finance but I'm curious how forex brokerages are able to provide the backing for leverage that they can provide to customers. Is it possible to do this ...
2k views

### What does leverage cost?

Let's say I've developed a strategy that always outperforms the S&P-500, let call it the "magic strategy". Now I should be golden. All I need is to always have the S&P shorted with the same ...