Questions tagged [limit-order-book]

The prioritized list of resting orders held by the exchange. Each limit order represents an obligation to buy or sell. The most common type of order book is prioritized first by price and them by time. Another variation is the price/size book, where larger size results in higher priority.

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Complexity of using balanced-tree to model order book

I have bene researching on the best data structure to implement a limit order book. Some of the most common implementations include arrays and balanced trees. This link has a good set of references. ...
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Market Making Formulation

I'm developing a deep reinforcement learning based approach to market-making. In order to implement this, I need to define the appropriate actions and define environmental steps. While doing some ...
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Building Limit OrderBooks methods (order-based) or (level-based)

I'm trying to implement a code to build limit order books. While doing some research I have seen two methods mainly, order-based for equities and level-based for futures. I could not understand why ...
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How does a Stock Exchange Provider implement a Stop-Loss Order?

If I place a stop loss order at my provider. Is this order directly forwarded to the stock exchange? Or does my provider implement this logic. If so, do they have to declare any delays that arise by ...
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335 views

How to understand micro-price (aka, weighted mid-price)?

The definition of micro-price is S = Pa * Vb / (Va + Vb) + Pb * Va / (Va + Vb) where Pa is the ask price, ...
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Order anticipation

Is there a way to anticipate order flow on a security. For simplicity's sake i'm referring to a security that is traded on one exchange and has a single order book, by anticipating order flow i mean ...
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Crossing the spread as a ML signal

In the optic of high-frequency trading, most of the standard trading algorithms work on the principle of mid-price prediction or mid-price movement prediction. However a big drawback of this technique ...
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How do orders outside of the market clearing level affect price?

Let's say a trader is trading in a LOB and he places an order deep in the book. How close can he be to the touch until he has temporary or even permanent price impact? This assumes he cancels after T ...
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Competitive levels in Limit Order Books

I've been doing some research on electronic Limit Order Books (mainly equities) and I was wondering if anyone has seen a paper on how to compute competitive limit order prices. By competitive, I mean ...
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Limit order book - Behaviour of GTC orders in the Orderbook

If I made a GTC (good till cancelled) to a Stock Exchange how will it stay within the Orderbook of the Stock Exchange if not executed during the day? Will it be removed after the trading day is over ...
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Decision making framework for trading consumption assets in a forward exchange market

I am working on a forward market with limit order books. My idea is to illustrate market operations and trading behaviors through discrete event simulation. Consumption assets are traded in the market,...
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Translating Order books accounting for fees

I am trying to understand how fee structure plays into how I should best execute a trade. Say there are two exchanges with the following order book: Exchange A: Bid Qty | Bid Price | Ask Price | ...
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Can simultaneous trades happen?

Investigating about matching engines i found that none of them acknowledges the scenario when two identical orders arrive at the exact same time. I get that it is very unlikely for this to happen, ...
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What is the price when the buy limit is above sell limit [closed]

Consider a marketplace where the sell order book has one order for 10 units at 1\$, then 10 units at 1.1\$ and then 100 units at 2\$. Say that I want to buy 20 units, and that I place a limit order ...
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What are good papers on order book dynamics?

I want to simulate a limit order book. For this I want a statistical model to model arrival of orders in the exchange. I would be thankful if anyone can point me in direction of relevant literature.
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How is market buy order executed when meeting both market sell order and limit sell order?

Currently, we all know how market buy order is executed when meeting only limit sell order for time-priority rule.
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Probability of getting a fill of a given size

Question is quite simple, what is the probability of getting a fill for: (i) a limit order of size - $s$ (ii) that is $\Delta$ away from the mid-price (iii) in the next $t$ minutes given ...
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How can one effectively approximate the fill portion of a limit order in a FIFO order book given it's recent state?

What methods could one use to find the step wise probability of a partial or full fill of an order in the best ask/bid level of a limit order book given the historic best ask and best bid quantities ...
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Control for bid/ask bounce in high-frequency trade data?

The bid-ask bounce is the bouncing of trade prices between the bid and ask sides of the market. It introduces a systematic bias to the data which can cause serious problems in analysis. What methods ...
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Real-time limit order book data of desired depth

Is it possible to get real-time NASDAQ limit order book data feed somewhere? I would need a stream of the limit order book data, preferably something similar to: Along with the respective events ...
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What is an efficient data structure to model order book?

What is an efficient data structure to model order book of prices and quantities to ensure: constant look up iteration in order of prices retrieving best bid and ask in constant time fast quantity ...
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Does EFP (Exchange Futures for Physical) Involves Cash Exchange?

I am new to the concept of Exchange Futures for Physical (EFP). According to some sources (link), An Exchange for Physical (EFP) is a transaction involving the simultaneous exchange between two ...
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Does adverse-selection have a time-frame associated with it?

When my limit order gets filled, the price almost always moves against me due to adverse-selection. However, given 'enough' time the price may yet move back in my favour. Has there been any study ...
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Standard ways of simulating order books

What are some standard simple ways of simulating an order book? I have found this paper, but it is missing the implementation details. And more importantly, it appears that it ignores the size of the ...
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Function price output hops around sometimes due to rounding

Say we have a function for estimating the fair price of a security. The function gives outputs rounded to the nearest 0.5 (that is, the raw output is not a rounded float, but can have a decimal part ...
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Modelling HFT data

In the context of Market making, how important is recent trades? In general, would i be able to get away with just modelling the Limit Order Book (LOB) and the evolution of the LOB in order to ...
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How do you interpret Level 1 data to a list of transactions/trades?

If you have L1 data of a given security, what is the best practice to interpret it to a list of transaction/trades? Or, can we actually do so? Just FYI, it's not a project for school but a problem I ...
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continuous stock price

I wonder what would happen if the stock price becomes continuous? I am thinking that if that happens, everyone just places a limit bid order just above the original best bid order or limit sell order ...
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Market Maker portfolio management

I am interested in articles/strategies related to portfolio and inventory management for market makers and to management of order cancellation, updates of order, etc. Most of the strategies from ...
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Algo trading execution simulation

Disclaimer: Brand new to high frequency algo trading. Background:I have tick-by-tick trade data for stock A and I have joined the price and volume data for each trade with the previous snapshot of ...
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Limit order book cancellations

Is there any practical and academic interest in predicting which orders in a limit order book will be canceled? From a policy point of view are people interested in detecting potential spoofing ...
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How to identify buy walls and sell walls from a limit orderbook?

I am trying to get notified of buy walls and sell walls from a limit orderbook and I had a couple of ideas and would appreciate some insight into these Take the mean quantity and anything above the ...
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What are “Autoquotes”?

I'm reading a 2008 JoFMarkets paper by Shkilko et al. with title "Locked and crossed markets on NASDAQ and the NYSE" in which the authors investigate the determinants of locked and crossed markets. ...
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1answer
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How is the Order priority of an Iceberg order decided?

Typically, markets guarantee a FIFO order of priority of execution for various orders at the same price. I want to know does this hold true for Iceberg orders? for eg Order1 = Buy 100 Quantities @ 2 ...
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Limit and Market Order for training a ML model

Goal : Using deep learning to build a ML model which would predict the right places where a stock price will increase, decrease or stay stable. For the current question, assume the labels are well ...
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How does one calibrate lambda in a Avellaneda-Stoikov market making problem?

In market making models derived originally from Avellaneda-Stoikov, there is a function lambda that represents the arrival rate of orders. In its prodigy, there are different representations of lambda,...
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How do I convert order book data into OHCL( Open,High,Low,close) format?

The image represents the order book data with columns having following attributes: a0: Best ASK price (i.e. the lowest posted price at which someone is willing to sell an asset) b0: Best BID price (...
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Order Book Dynamics

I have been following this paper: Price dynamics in a Markovian limit order market, by Rama Cont and Adrien De Larrard The model is especially pertinent as I only have access to L1 data. The model ...
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Does all (or any) exchange eats the positive difference between a buy order and a ask order?

Say Alice asks for 100 for 5 stocks, Rob asks 101 for 5 stocks. Bob really wants to buy the stocks, so he bids $101 for 10 stocks. Does Bob actually pays 100 * 5 + 101 * 5 + fee, or 101 * 10 + fee? ...
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Limit order book - does it get wiped over night?

Let's say we have a look at the NASDAQ's limit order book. We do have a bid side and ask side levels. Does the limit order book get wiped over night? Meaning everything which is not executed is ...
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Question about order book and single player interference

Let us suppose I have 1 Million US Dollars, and I am given an ask value of 0.45 USD per share in a given share. Let us call it MRD3. If I place an order of the type bid, in which I offer only 0.01 USD ...
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What is the proportion of aggressive orders vs passive orders executed by different types of traders?

It's clear that each aggressive order (or market order or limit crossing BBO) is matched against the same volume of resting limit order(s). I'm interested in statistics per different types of ...
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Metrics for Measuring Intraday Activity

Using intraday data, are there certain measures that exist for measuring the "activity" of a particular instrument. By intraday data I mean, all changes to the limit order book (trades, adds, cancels, ...
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Why is limit price order been executed with a worse price?

recently I was trying to analysis the message data from NASDAQ ITCH data, but I find a problem with a type of message called "Executed With Price Message". For example, first there is an Add Order ...
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Locked/crossed prices in US equities

I'm trying to build a consolidated LOB from several direct feeds. However, there are many instances in which for a given stock, the bid price in one venue equals or crosses the ask price in a ...
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What are flickering orders?

I am reading a paper for my bachelor thesis, Queuing Uncertainty in Limit Order Market by Bart Zhou Yueshen who is the new AP at INSEAD. In the abstract, the author said: "Flickering orders manifest ...
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What exactly is an ISO order?

I have been looking this up and I feel like I keep running into different definitions. My understanding is that an ISO order is one which will get filled with the displayed quantity in a particular ...
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Stop Orders - Force a Sale?

In Hull's Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives 9/e, p39, he states A stop order or stop-loss order also specifies a particular price. The order is executed at the best available price once a ...
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Executions deep in the Limit Order Book?

I have some Level III (message level) data for equities and I have found several cases in which I register the execution of a Limit Order at a price "worse" than the best bid or ask. For example, ...
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What tools exist for order book analysis and visualization?

What tools exist for order book analysis and visualization? In particular, if one wanted to examine a limit order book and understand how it changes throughout the day where would you turn for ...