Questions tagged [liquidity]

Liquidity is easy to define qualitatively (the easiness to buy or sell an asset), but difficult to measure.

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Market Fragmentation

Consider a scenario where a security can be exchanged on two exchanges A and B. A trader who has access to A and B with same execution probabilities submit an order and split it between A and B ...
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Liquidity Preference Hypothesis and Yield Curve

Unlike under the Expectation Hypothesis (for which the forwards are perfect predictors of the expected short rates), for the LPH forward=expected short rates + LP and consequently the expected short ...
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Gueant–Lehalle–Fernandez-Tapia formulas for varying volatility

There are formulas proposed by Gueant–Lehalle–Fernandez-Tapia related to the optimal bid and ask in market-making models (Optimal Market Making by Gueant or The Financial Mathematics of Market ...
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Where can I learn more about market-making strategies? [duplicate]

I have some experience trading both sides of an order book, but not simultaneously in the same security (and certainly not at the size large market makers do.) I've searched pretty extensively for ...
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Liquidity assessment for OTC derivatives

How does a bank assess the liquidity of OTC derivatives such as swaps, options, and forwards, for which there isn't public data regarding trading volume?
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What is selling intensity, loss intensity, and how can I calibrate them?

Thought asking around on a problem I'm currently facing. I have a hypothetical multi-asset portfolio of equities and bonds, on which I'm trying to measure it's liquidity risk in stressed periods. I've ...
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Liquidity Rebate

I have one question regarding the liquidity rebate that liquidity providers receive. I've read on investopedia that it refers to the traders/investors who place limit orders since they then "...
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NFT Floor Price

I'm interested in modeling NFT Floor Price. Specifically, I'm trying to answer the question: Given current bid-ask info on an NFT collection, what is the probability distribution of the lowest ask ...
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How do brokerage firms provide liquidity?

Do they directly put limit orders on the order book? Or do they automatically fill limit/market orders from customers and have offsetting position with their market maker(LP) to offset their net ...
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How Market makers work

Is it true that approved market makers are simply taking the other side of the orders from retail or maybe institutions whatever the price is without actually being on the order book, and they also ...
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Estimating Amihud's illiquidity in Python

I have found the following code in the book Python for Finance by Yuxing Yan, in page 267 for estimating Amihud's illiquidity ...
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What are the quantitative requirements to distinguish between asset classes?

What are the quantitative criteria to distinguish between asset classes? I ask this as many institutional investors are undergoing strategic and tactical asset class decisions at the moment. How ...
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How to clarify "Predatory trading" process?

Brunnermeier, 2005 studied the "predatory trading" This paper studies predatory trading, trading that induces and/or exploits the need of other investors to reduce their positions. We show ...
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Filtering options for IV surface and construction for cryptocurrencies

I'm new to quant finance and currently working on my first project.I'm trying to construct the Implied volatility surface for cryptocurrencies from deribit ( as options from deribit are the most ...
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Literature on liquidity risk: Amihud (2002) vs Pastor and Stambaugh (2003)

Why is it the case that literature which studies liquidity risk often use the Amihud (2002) measure, whilst in factor pricing a liquidity portfolio based on the Pastor and Stambaugh (2003) liquidity ...
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Measuring extra return investors demand for a stock which cannot be sold?

How to roughly measure how much premium investors would demand if a stock could not be sold and its investors had to stick with it permanently using just dividends not capital gain as return? I am not ...
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Calculation of Expected Shortfall using IMA Approach ( FRTB)

I am trying to calculate the Expected shortfall of a FX portfolio through IMA Approach of FRTB in excel . I have used several combinations in excel to get the liquidity horizons and then calculate the ...
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cme options volume

I am lookin at https://www.cmegroup.com/trading/interest-rates/stir/eurodollar_quotes_volume_voi.html?foi=O&optionProductId=3#tradeDate=20210312. It says about 16 million in options was traded. ...
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Liquidity measures for Commodities Futures

I would like to find a way to measure Liquidity for Commodities Futures. I found the following 4 papers/definitions: Volume (Share / Dollar) (Dollar Volume Liquidity) Amivest Liquidity Ratio (...
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Spread and outright futures ranked by liquidity

Is there a platform that ranks spread and outright futures by liquidity and/or by volatility?
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Market impact in stress

I am trying to model the price impact in stress for a period of several days. Specifically, I am looking for a function/model that predicts the price movement ...
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How is the futures price set on days without trades?

In an illiquid (commodity) futures market, several days may pass between trades in a contract. If the traders' positions must be marked to market every day, a price must be quoted even on days without ...
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What are some currently open problems in market microstructure

I've been reading up on market microstructure models and toyed around with them -- i.e., I got simulations for Roll (1984), Glosten-Milgrom (1985), Kyle (1985), Kyle (1985) with multiple periods. I am ...
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Why are Index/ETF put option volumes generally higher than the call option volumes?

It seems like put options on Index/ETFs generally have 50% more volume than call options, in terms of notionals. We don't see the same put/call volume ratios in single stocks. Why is that the case? I ...
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How do locked markets get resolved in a low-volume market?

Consider a low-volume exchange-traded security that sometimes sees no trading volume for days on end. Examples of such securities are some bonds, preferred shares, SPACs, and ETFs listed on the NYSE ...
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Why is the liquidity of ATM options often relatively low even though the underlying security is being traded in large quantity?

I am trying to learn more about options trading and option strategies. One thing that I have noticed is that for a lot of large cap stocks such as KO and UPS, very often there is a very low open ...
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FX convertability modelling: have FX markets ever closed down?

I am working on modelling the risk that a bank's cash in one currency could not be converted into another currencies. This convertability risk has liquidity implacations for the asset liabilities ...
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liquidity of a portfolio of options

In the asset management industry, many reports contain liquidity metrics such as the no. of days to liquidate 95% of a position, based on a certain participation rate. If that position is a stock or a ...
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Implied volatility of hypothetical options market

I am attempting to create a volatility surface for a US electricity market that has a liquid futures market but nearly non-existent options market (<5 trades per month across all strikes and ...
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Estimating risk aversion from option bid-ask spreads

Is it possible to use bid-ask spreads on contracts from a specific tenor to estimate risk aversion and use it to transform risk-neutral density into real-world density?
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How to make a trading universe of liquid futures contracts

I am forming a universe of liquid futures/liquid FX forwards. I want a list of all liquid contracts, the key word being liquid. This is for an academic project, but you could imagine liquid being ...
Matterhorn's user avatar
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Stressing liquidity (time to liquidate) of a long only equity fund using participation rate or bid ask

My company is looking to launch a new long only global equity fund. The product committee wishes to see a risk analysis covering various risks, including liquidity. The main measure is time to ...
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How does liquidity affect trading costs?

I am aware that the liquidity of a stock directly affects the trading costs associated with it. I am however unsure about the direction of this effect, since I hypothesize two counteracting forces: ...
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International Baccalaureate - Balance Sheet Format [closed]

I would like to transform Tesla's balance sheet (https://www.nasdaq.com/symbol/tsla/financials?query=balance-sheet) into the IB-balance sheet format (see below). In the current assets section, is it,...
David Kurz's user avatar
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Measuring liquiduity of a portoflio of bonds

I'm currently looking into applying bond liquidity out of curiousity. The Method i'm currently using is the Barclays LCS score (live.barcap.com/publiccp/RSR/nyfipubs/barcap-email-mkting/qps/LCS_In-...
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CDS pricing using intensity models incorporating liquidity

I want to price a CDS using an intensity based model, but I want to account for liquidity as well. General model: The default time $\tau$ is the first jump time of a cox process, and the survival ...
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Using option pricing methods to model real asset liquidity

Liquidity risk (in the sense of asset exit risk) is warranted on investments that may not be easily divested at the going market or fair-value price. I am looking at a portfolio of private assets ...
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Fama-Macbeth with Liquidity Sorted Portfolios

I'm currently working on a paper in which I'm trying to see whether the liquidity premium is an observable phenomena when taken into the context of computer games. From my research online I've found ...
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what is liquidation value in kyle (1985) model

I am thoroughly reading my first academic literature and I have found myself overwhelmed by terms that have been generalised in my studies. It is from "Continuous Auction and Insider Trading" by ...
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Application of Extreme Value Theory in banking liquidity risk analysis

The regulator forces banks to assess their (intraday) liquidity risk in normal and stressed conditions see e.g. BCBS 144 principle 9. To me this sounds pretty much like a possible application of EVT ...
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Bond liquidity: why do I observe constant bid-ask spreads?

I hope you can help me. I want to use the bid-ask spread of prices for 10yr treasury notes as a proxy for bond market liquidity. I got monthly aggregated bond price data (for yrs 1999-2013) from ...
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What makes open-outcry preferable to electronic trading and what are its consequences?

I recently visited the trading floor of CBOE where especially the pits of SPX and VIX are relatively crowded and open outcry is still performed. I was surprised to hear that the traded volume is non ...
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Cost of liquidation

In the text book on Risk Management by John Hull, The cost of liquidation is defined as one half of spread between bid price and ask price. Investopedia justifies the one half factor by saying that ...
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Basis swap pricing dynamics

The existence of basis spreads leads to that e.g. a 6M forward rate has a different price than two after each other following 3M forward rates. This due to that the 6M forward rate has a higher credit ...
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Bond Valuation and liquidity

Assuming the market is perfect liquid, the bond price can be replicated and is related as follows: $$\sum_{t=0}^{N}c_ne^{-Y(t_n-t)}=\sum_{t=0}^{N}c_nP_{t_n}=\sum_{t=0}^{N}c_ne^{-Y_{t,t_n}(t_n-t)}$$ ...
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Is there evidence that delta-hedging of large investors affects markets?

I would expect that many traders hedge their exposure before market closing based on their positions. In order to determine the timing of readjustment, there should probably two channels affect the ...
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weird stationary pattern in LDO.MI's stock price

how to describe this pattern in Leonardo Finmeccanica's share price (observed here)? It is a fairly liquid stock, but the price seems to alternate between ca. 8 and ca 13!! Does anyone know what ...
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How to calculate average liquidity of a portfolio with multiple assets and weights?

I have a weighted portfolio with several assets and weights. Liquidity of my assets varies from low to high and concentration of assets in the portfolio change from one asset to another, for example ...
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Liquidity horizons of risk factors categories

I'm reading the consultative document of the BCBS on the Fundamental Review of the Trading Book: http://www.bis.org/publ/bcbs265.pdf Table 2 on page 16 shows the liquidity horizons for 5 broad risk ...
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What are the best measures of market liquidity?

Does any single metric provide a convenient way to capture depth, breadth, and resiliency, or to distinguish between transitory and persistent effects (i.e. between the stationary and random walk ...
Andrew Maliska's user avatar