# Questions tagged [liquidity]

Liquidity is easy to define qualitatively (the easiness to buy or sell an asset), but difficult to measure.

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### Measuring extra return investors demand for a stock which cannot be sold?

How to roughly measure how much premium investors would demand if a stock could not be sold and its investors had to stick with it permanently using just dividends not capital gain as return? I am not ...
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### Calculation of Expected Shortfall using IMA Approach ( FRTB)

I am trying to calculate the Expected shortfall of a FX portfolio through IMA Approach of FRTB in excel . I have used several combinations in excel to get the liquidity horizons and then calculate the ...
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I am looking to estimate the realized spread defined as $$\text{realized spread} = 2D_k(ln(P_k) - ln(M_{k+5}))$$ Where $D_k$ is 1 for buy transactions and -1 for sell transactions. $P_k$ is the ...
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### Liquidity measures for Commodities Futures

I would like to find a way to measure Liquidity for Commodities Futures. I found the following 4 papers/definitions: Volume (Share / Dollar) (Dollar Volume Liquidity) Amivest Liquidity Ratio (...
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In the absence of quotes data, I'm looking to calculate the realized bid-ask spread using (high-frequency) transactions data. Is there a standard method of doing this? Many thanks.
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### Spread and outright futures ranked by liquidity

Is there a platform that ranks spread and outright futures by liquidity and/or by volatility?
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### Market impact in stress

I am trying to model the price impact in stress for a period of several days. Specifically, I am looking for a function/model that predicts the price movement ...
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### How is the futures price set on days without trades?

In an illiquid (commodity) futures market, several days may pass between trades in a contract. If the traders' positions must be marked to market every day, a price must be quoted even on days without ...
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### What are some currently open problems in market microstructure

I've been reading up on market microstructure models and toyed around with them -- i.e., I got simulations for Roll (1984), Glosten-Milgrom (1985), Kyle (1985), Kyle (1985) with multiple periods. I am ...
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### Why are Index/ETF put option volumes generally higher than the call option volumes?

It seems like put options on Index/ETFs generally have 50% more volume than call options, in terms of notionals. We don't see the same put/call volume ratios in single stocks. Why is that the case? I ...
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### How do locked markets get resolved in a low-volume market?

Consider a low-volume exchange-traded security that sometimes sees no trading volume for days on end. Examples of such securities are some bonds, preferred shares, SPACs, and ETFs listed on the NYSE ...
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### What is liquidity seeking?

I heard that liquidity seeking is an opportunistic tactic aiming at sourcing additional liquidity from hidden orders. Could somebody explain this to me please?
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### Why is the liquidity of ATM options often relatively low even though the underlying security is being traded in large quantity?

I am trying to learn more about options trading and option strategies. One thing that I have noticed is that for a lot of large cap stocks such as KO and UPS, very often there is a very low open ...
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### FX convertability modelling: have FX markets ever closed down?

I am working on modelling the risk that a bank's cash in one currency could not be converted into another currencies. This convertability risk has liquidity implacations for the asset liabilities ...
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### liquidity of a portfolio of options

In the asset management industry, many reports contain liquidity metrics such as the no. of days to liquidate 95% of a position, based on a certain participation rate. If that position is a stock or a ...
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### Implied volatility of hypothetical options market

I am attempting to create a volatility surface for a US electricity market that has a liquid futures market but nearly non-existent options market (<5 trades per month across all strikes and ...
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Is it possible to use bid-ask spreads on contracts from a specific tenor to estimate risk aversion and use it to transform risk-neutral density into real-world density?
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### How to make a trading universe of liquid futures contracts

I am forming a universe of liquid futures/liquid FX forwards. I want a list of all liquid contracts, the key word being liquid. This is for an academic project, but you could imagine liquid being ...
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### Stressing liquidity (time to liquidate) of a long only equity fund using participation rate or bid ask

My company is looking to launch a new long only global equity fund. The product committee wishes to see a risk analysis covering various risks, including liquidity. The main measure is time to ...
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### How does liquidity affect trading costs?

I am aware that the liquidity of a stock directly affects the trading costs associated with it. I am however unsure about the direction of this effect, since I hypothesize two counteracting forces: ...
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### International Baccalaureate - Balance Sheet Format [closed]

I would like to transform Tesla's balance sheet (https://www.nasdaq.com/symbol/tsla/financials?query=balance-sheet) into the IB-balance sheet format (see below). In the current assets section, is it,...
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### Measuring liquiduity of a portoflio of bonds

I'm currently looking into applying bond liquidity out of curiousity. The Method i'm currently using is the Barclays LCS score (live.barcap.com/publiccp/RSR/nyfipubs/barcap-email-mkting/qps/LCS_In-...
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### CDS pricing using intensity models incorporating liquidity

I want to price a CDS using an intensity based model, but I want to account for liquidity as well. General model: The default time $\tau$ is the first jump time of a cox process, and the survival ...
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### Using option pricing methods to model real asset liquidity

Liquidity risk (in the sense of asset exit risk) is warranted on investments that may not be easily divested at the going market or fair-value price. I am looking at a portfolio of private assets ...
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### Fama-Macbeth with Liquidity Sorted Portfolios

I'm currently working on a paper in which I'm trying to see whether the liquidity premium is an observable phenomena when taken into the context of computer games. From my research online I've found ...
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### what is liquidation value in kyle (1985) model

I am thoroughly reading my first academic literature and I have found myself overwhelmed by terms that have been generalised in my studies. It is from "Continuous Auction and Insider Trading" by ...
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### Application of Extreme Value Theory in banking liquidity risk analysis

The regulator forces banks to assess their (intraday) liquidity risk in normal and stressed conditions see e.g. BCBS 144 principle 9. To me this sounds pretty much like a possible application of EVT ...
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I hope you can help me. I want to use the bid-ask spread of prices for 10yr treasury notes as a proxy for bond market liquidity. I got monthly aggregated bond price data (for yrs 1999-2013) from ...
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### What makes open-outcry preferable to electronic trading and what are its consequences?

I recently visited the trading floor of CBOE where especially the pits of SPX and VIX are relatively crowded and open outcry is still performed. I was surprised to hear that the traded volume is non ...
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### Cost of liquidation

In the text book on Risk Management by John Hull, The cost of liquidation is defined as one half of spread between bid price and ask price. Investopedia justifies the one half factor by saying that ...
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### Basis swap pricing dynamics

The existence of basis spreads leads to that e.g. a 6M forward rate has a different price than two after each other following 3M forward rates. This due to that the 6M forward rate has a higher credit ...
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### Bond Valuation and liquidity

Assuming the market is perfect liquid, the bond price can be replicated and is related as follows: $$\sum_{t=0}^{N}c_ne^{-Y(t_n-t)}=\sum_{t=0}^{N}c_nP_{t_n}=\sum_{t=0}^{N}c_ne^{-Y_{t,t_n}(t_n-t)}$$ ...
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### Is there evidence that delta-hedging of large investors affects markets?

I would expect that many traders hedge their exposure before market closing based on their positions. In order to determine the timing of readjustment, there should probably two channels affect the ...
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### weird stationary pattern in LDO.MI's stock price

how to describe this pattern in Leonardo Finmeccanica's share price (observed here)? It is a fairly liquid stock, but the price seems to alternate between ca. 8 and ca 13!! Does anyone know what ...
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### How to calculate average liquidity of a portfolio with multiple assets and weights?

I have a weighted portfolio with several assets and weights. Liquidity of my assets varies from low to high and concentration of assets in the portfolio change from one asset to another, for example ...
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### Liquidity horizons of risk factors categories

I'm reading the consultative document of the BCBS on the Fundamental Review of the Trading Book: http://www.bis.org/publ/bcbs265.pdf Table 2 on page 16 shows the liquidity horizons for 5 broad risk ...
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### What are the best measures of market liquidity?

Does any single metric provide a convenient way to capture depth, breadth, and resiliency, or to distinguish between transitory and persistent effects (i.e. between the stationary and random walk ...
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I am thoroughly reading my first academic literature and I have found myself overwhelmed by terms that have been generalised in my studies. The extract is from "The Beauty Contest and Short-Term ...
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### Initiating new orders with active “order-session” only?

Is it a must to establish "quote-session" & subscribing to quotes/market data before initiating a "New Order-single(Market-GTC)"? I actually can't see any use of quote-session for trading ...
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### Liquidity effect in case MS decrease

What is the result if the liquidity effect is grater than other effects in case of decreased money supply? I got this question on the exam, In case of an increase in the money supply by the central ...
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### What are the causes of incorrect prices in the market?

If market resiliency, a measure of liquidity, is the amount of time it takes a market to bounce back from temporarily incorrect prices, then what makes a price "incorrect"? Is this like fat-finger ...
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### Estimating an appropriate haircut for illiquid stocks

I am trying to determine an appropriate haircut for a basket of illiquid stocks that barely traded during the year. Can someone suggest me an approach to estimate the risk? My dataset has a lot of ...
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### Research topics - neural networks and market liquidity

I am a masters student looking for some direction on using neural network on market depth data to help predict market liquidity and bid-ask spreads. Can some of the more experienced people give me ...
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### How do I calculate approximate equity liquidity?

I am a developer rather than a quant. I need to decide whether a given equity passes some basic liquidity threshold. It doesn't have to be precise, just good enough. I have a Bloomberg terminal data ...
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Are there any studies on the average difference or ratio between Settlement (execution price) and the Spot price dependant on lot size. I'm looking for a function such as ...
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### Intraday versus daily volatility in slippage estimation

On page 21 of http://www.cims.nyu.edu/~almgren/papers/costestim.pdf Almgren has the formula \$\displaystyle{\text{Slippage} = \frac{1}{2}\gamma\sigma\frac{X}{V}\left(\frac{\Theta}{V}\right)^{\frac{1}{...
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### Charting order depth over time periods

I do a lot of analysis on order flow, tape reading, as it gives insight into what market participants want, or may be willing to do. In comparison, price charts show what happened, and technical ...