Questions tagged [liquidity]

Liquidity is easy to define qualitatively (the easiness to buy or sell an asset), but difficult to measure.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
18
votes
8answers
2k views

Measuring liquidity

While liquidity is one of the key figure of financial markets, It seems to be very difficult to measure. Volume is sometime used as a proxy but can sometimes be completly irrelevant. Could you point ...
15
votes
3answers
866 views

Market making in thinly traded assets

Could anyone suggest some literature or have any practical advice for marking a market in thinly traded assets with the following characteristics: 0-10 trades per day. Open limit-order book with 0-5 ...
12
votes
5answers
2k views

Is it ever possible that---because of illiquidity---exercising an out-of-the-money option is better than directly buying the stock?

Is there a case, where due to illiquidity, exercising out-of-the-money options could be better than directly buying the stock? When a stock is too illiquid, there are some costs because of this ...
10
votes
1answer
546 views

Alternative liquidity measures

I'm going to write the MSc thesis on flight-to-liquidity phenomenon in stock markets and I'm interested in liquidity measures other than Amihud or bid-ask spread. What are some other popular measures ...
10
votes
2answers
1k views

Liquidity estimators: VWAP and IS

I am looking for some info on how to estimate liquidity (intraday). I have read some researches and created intraday measurements of liquidity on time yet not on price. What I mean by this is that I ...
9
votes
1answer
517 views

How do you calculate the implied liquidity of an option?

How does one calculate the implied liquidity of a specific option contract given a set of vanilla puts and calls with various strikes and maturities on a single underlying?
8
votes
3answers
1k views

Papers and algorithms on bidding schemes for best order execution?

I'm building an automated option trading bot that executes common options multi-leg strategies (straddles, spreads) and I want to learn the best way to execute my orders. As you know, the bid-ask ...
8
votes
2answers
461 views

illiquid american options pricing

What are the standard methods to price american call/put options on illiquid underlyings?
8
votes
1answer
691 views

How to model time series of illiquid stocks - 400 observations (transactions) per 8 hours?

How to model time series which are illiquid - 400 observations (transactions) per 8 hours ? Are there models suitable for this situation which incorporate not only size of the transactions but also ...
8
votes
2answers
726 views

What quant terms to use to search for papers about “stop-hunting” trading strategies?

Are there any papers about possible trading strategies you can apply when you know where a large cluster of orders is located in the order-book? These seem to fall in the liquidity-provisioning/...
7
votes
3answers
894 views

Transaction Costs for Currency Pairs

I have been aggregating some tick data from Oanda's streaming API to try and get an idea of the relative cost and best time to trade different currency pairs. The idea was to plot the spread of the ...
7
votes
2answers
420 views

Research topics - neural networks and market liquidity

I am a masters student looking for some direction on using neural network on market depth data to help predict market liquidity and bid-ask spreads. Can some of the more experienced people give me ...
7
votes
1answer
281 views

Modeling liquidity effect on option prices

What are practically useful ways of modelling the effect of liquidity on options?
6
votes
2answers
333 views

Impact on bid/offer due to volume/size of trades placed

When observing bid/offer in the market I came across a question. How much trading a bond would impact its spread for subsequent trades ie. what is the impact on bid/offer due to volume/size of ...
5
votes
2answers
507 views

How to define and measure liquidity or funding premium in credit markets?

Even companies with just a single non-callable corporate bond outstanding will often have CDS quote spreads that differ from the bond quote spread. During the 2008 crisis, there were dozens of cases ...
4
votes
2answers
278 views

How to make a trading universe of liquid futures contracts

I am forming a universe of liquid futures/liquid FX forwards. I want a list of all liquid contracts, the key word being liquid. This is for an academic project, but you could imagine liquid being ...
4
votes
3answers
5k views

How do I calculate approximate equity liquidity?

I am a developer rather than a quant. I need to decide whether a given equity passes some basic liquidity threshold. It doesn't have to be precise, just good enough. I have a Bloomberg terminal data ...
4
votes
2answers
241 views

Estimating an appropriate haircut for illiquid stocks

I am trying to determine an appropriate haircut for a basket of illiquid stocks that barely traded during the year. Can someone suggest me an approach to estimate the risk? My dataset has a lot of ...
4
votes
1answer
303 views

Using option pricing methods to model real asset liquidity

Liquidity risk (in the sense of asset exit risk) is warranted on investments that may not be easily divested at the going market or fair-value price. I am looking at a portfolio of private assets ...
4
votes
1answer
131 views

Is there evidence that delta-hedging of large investors affects markets?

I would expect that many traders hedge their exposure before market closing based on their positions. In order to determine the timing of readjustment, there should probably two channels affect the ...
4
votes
1answer
441 views

Liquidity diversification

The liquidity diversification can be measured by the liquidity score, defined here as the ratio between the pure market P&L CVaR and the market+liquidity P&L CVaR. I have tried to reproduce ...
3
votes
1answer
331 views

What are some currently open problems in market microstructure

I've been reading up on market microstructure models and toyed around with them -- i.e., I got simulations for Roll (1984), Glosten-Milgrom (1985), Kyle (1985), Kyle (1985) with multiple periods. I am ...
3
votes
2answers
163 views

Bond Valuation and liquidity

Assuming the market is perfect liquid, the bond price can be replicated and is related as follows: $$\sum_{t=0}^{N}c_ne^{-Y(t_n-t)}=\sum_{t=0}^{N}c_nP_{t_n}=\sum_{t=0}^{N}c_ne^{-Y_{t,t_n}(t_n-t)}$$ ...
3
votes
2answers
540 views

how to define liquidity in equity, index, and etf options

i've heard several ways to put a metric on liquidity of options.. obviously liquidity isn't a constant.. things like the Bid/Asks spread, liquidity of the underlying.. Trying to find a way to ...
3
votes
1answer
3k views

Liquidity Traders

I am thoroughly reading my first academic literature and I have found myself overwhelmed by terms that have been generalised in my studies. The extract is from "The Beauty Contest and Short-Term ...
3
votes
3answers
182 views

Why are Index/ETF put option volumes generally higher than the call option volumes?

It seems like put options on Index/ETFs generally have 50% more volume than call options, in terms of notionals. We don't see the same put/call volume ratios in single stocks. Why is that the case? I ...
3
votes
2answers
68 views

Estimating risk aversion from option bid-ask spreads

Is it possible to use bid-ask spreads on contracts from a specific tenor to estimate risk aversion and use it to transform risk-neutral density into real-world density?
3
votes
1answer
481 views

Basis swap pricing dynamics

The existence of basis spreads leads to that e.g. a 6M forward rate has a different price than two after each other following 3M forward rates. This due to that the 6M forward rate has a higher credit ...
3
votes
0answers
77 views

Is there evidence that illiquid stocks, held less by institutions, have more price momentum?

(One of) the standard explanation people gave for momentum is under-reaction of stockholders to firm-specific news. If this is true, then it seems that these stocks should have more momentum, and ...
2
votes
2answers
1k views

Liquidity seeking algorithms open source implementation

Are there any free online liquidity seeking algorithms? Possible an open source implementation? Not looking for anything state-of-the-art, but just to get an idea how they work.
2
votes
3answers
844 views

Time Series or Regression

I'd like to research the impact of certain events and characteristics on the liquidity of the stocks over time. I've got a sample of 200 stocks and I use several measures of liquidity (Amihud, Bid-Ask ...
2
votes
1answer
94 views

Implied volatility of hypothetical options market

I am attempting to create a volatility surface for a US electricity market that has a liquid futures market but nearly non-existent options market (<5 trades per month across all strikes and ...
2
votes
1answer
219 views

What makes open-outcry preferable to electronic trading and what are its consequences?

I recently visited the trading floor of CBOE where especially the pits of SPX and VIX are relatively crowded and open outcry is still performed. I was surprised to hear that the traded volume is non ...
2
votes
2answers
76 views

What are the causes of incorrect prices in the market?

If market resiliency, a measure of liquidity, is the amount of time it takes a market to bounce back from temporarily incorrect prices, then what makes a price "incorrect"? Is this like fat-finger ...
2
votes
2answers
1k views

definition for “the viscosity” in financial market data series

I am willing to calculate and monitor the evolution of extreme-viscosity in the financial markets data series. Wikipedia says "Put simply, the less viscous the fluid is, the greater its ease of ...
2
votes
1answer
66 views

liquidity of a portfolio of options

In the asset management industry, many reports contain liquidity metrics such as the no. of days to liquidate 95% of a position, based on a certain participation rate. If that position is a stock or a ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

How to calculate average liquidity of a portfolio with multiple assets and weights?

I have a weighted portfolio with several assets and weights. Liquidity of my assets varies from low to high and concentration of assets in the portfolio change from one asset to another, for example ...
2
votes
1answer
840 views

Intraday versus daily volatility in slippage estimation

On page 21 of http://www.cims.nyu.edu/~almgren/papers/costestim.pdf Almgren has the formula $\displaystyle{\text{Slippage} = \frac{1}{2}\gamma\sigma\frac{X}{V}\left(\frac{\Theta}{V}\right)^{\frac{1}{...
2
votes
1answer
76 views

Stressing liquidity (time to liquidate) of a long only equity fund using participation rate or bid ask

My company is looking to launch a new long only global equity fund. The product committee wishes to see a risk analysis covering various risks, including liquidity. The main measure is time to ...
2
votes
0answers
76 views

CDS pricing using intensity models incorporating liquidity

I want to price a CDS using an intensity based model, but I want to account for liquidity as well. General model: The default time $\tau$ is the first jump time of a cox process, and the survival ...
2
votes
0answers
103 views

Application of Extreme Value Theory in banking liquidity risk analysis

The regulator forces banks to assess their (intraday) liquidity risk in normal and stressed conditions see e.g. BCBS 144 principle 9. To me this sounds pretty much like a possible application of EVT ...
2
votes
0answers
203 views

What are the best measures of market liquidity?

Does any single metric provide a convenient way to capture depth, breadth, and resiliency, or to distinguish between transitory and persistent effects (i.e. between the stationary and random walk ...
2
votes
0answers
89 views

Charting order depth over time periods

I do a lot of analysis on order flow, tape reading, as it gives insight into what market participants want, or may be willing to do. In comparison, price charts show what happened, and technical ...
1
vote
1answer
645 views

How could HFT help increase liquidity? [duplicate]

I have ready in several websites that HFT can help increase market liquidity, although this is contested in some articles. I am not familiar with the concept of market liquidity. What is the basis of ...
1
vote
1answer
210 views

transaction size and liquidity in simulation of US stocks

i am developing a simulation trading in US stocks. i have 1 transaction a day per stock, assumed for simplicity to be executed at the daily closing price. in order to determine a reasonable maximal ...
1
vote
2answers
131 views

Why is the liquidity of ATM options often relatively low even though the underlying security is being traded in large quantity?

I am trying to learn more about options trading and option strategies. One thing that I have noticed is that for a lot of large cap stocks such as KO and UPS, very often there is a very low open ...
1
vote
1answer
45 views

Measuring extra return investors demand for a stock which cannot be sold?

How to roughly measure how much premium investors would demand if a stock could not be sold and its investors had to stick with it permanently using just dividends not capital gain as return? I am not ...
1
vote
1answer
81 views

Measuring liquiduity of a portoflio of bonds

I'm currently looking into applying bond liquidity out of curiousity. The Method i'm currently using is the Barclays LCS score (live.barcap.com/publiccp/RSR/nyfipubs/barcap-email-mkting/qps/LCS_In-...
1
vote
2answers
91 views

Initiating new orders with active “order-session” only?

Is it a must to establish "quote-session" & subscribing to quotes/market data before initiating a "New Order-single(Market-GTC)"? I actually can't see any use of quote-session for trading ...
1
vote
1answer
100 views

Separated software and physical cash flows modelling and pricing to be used with negative interest rates?

The physical cash presence in the final transactions is one of the issues in the presently observed negative interest rates bonds. Such a situation has historically been modelled within the "liquidity ...