Questions tagged [option-pricing]

Questions about models for the valuation of option contracts.

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44 views

Quesion about the VBA function of continuous cap look up [on hold]

Here is the VBA function to calculate the cap price Can anyone tell me what is N and t0? From the textbook, N = the number of reset (or payment) dates and t0 = time until the first reset date. But ...
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34 views

Pricing Equity Swaptions

Consider a swaption to enter into a standard equity swap as a fixed-rate payer, equity receiver, in which the notional principal is fixed. If the strike is K. the underlying swap starts at time 0=n ...
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95 views

A relatively useless but fun question for quants and physicists

Suppose I am a trader travelling in a very fast spaceship. What kind of SDE and corresponding PDE should I jot down and work with in order to ensure that there is no arbitrage (or if there is ...
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1answer
41 views

European Call option replication

An asset $S_t$ is evolving according to the Black-Scholes model. We want to replicate a call option on this asset by holding Delta units of the asset at every time. I use a Monte Carlo algorithm to ...
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44 views

Strictly increasing asset price under a risk-neutral probability measure?

I am reading a paper on option pricing under jump processes in continuous time. There is a section labeled examples where the authors work under a risk neutral probability measure and derive option ...
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49 views

Pricing of future options

I have the following question on futures options: There is a Black’s model, which is a variant of the Black-Scholes formula that is used to price stock options. The Black’s model prices future ...
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48 views

Pricing exchange options

I am really puzzled about the mechanism of pricing of exchange options using a change in numeraire: Suppose that $S^{(1)}$ and $S^{(2)}$ are stocks satisfying SDEs $$dS^{(1)}_t = \mu_1 S^{(1)}_t \,...
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1answer
52 views

Intuitive explanation of why ITM options have low Time/Extrinsic Values?

While brushing up on my knowledge about the Greeks, I have been struggling coming up with an intuitive, probability-based explanation behind why not only Out-of-the-Money (OTM), but also In-the-Money (...
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62 views

working with eurodollar options with strikes > 100?

I am trying to extract the implied volatility from options on Eurodollar futures. My understanding is that I should be converting the Underlying Price and Strikes to rates (S = 100 - FuturesPrice, K* =...
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1answer
75 views

Delta hedging: theoretical value vs actual price

One way to derive the Black-Scholes PDE is via the Delta-hedging argument: Suppose that $V_t = V(t, S_t)$, for some function $V: [0,T] \times \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$. We construct a portfolio by ...
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1answer
73 views

Option pricing: Relationship between Theta and early exercise

I am confused about the following: For a European put option, the parameter $\Theta$ is given by $$ \Theta= \frac{d V}{dt} = -\frac{SN'(d_1) \sigma}{2 \sqrt{T-t}} + rK e^{-r(T-t)}N(-d_2).$$ My ...
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30 views

Change of numeraire/probability when asset pays dividends

So I was looking at Margrabe's formula for exchange call options in the book 'Mathematical Methods for Financial Markets' (Jeanblanc, Chesney, Yor), and I was having trouble justifying their change of ...
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36 views

What is the name (Greek) for sensitivity of an option's Theta to the Time to maturity?

All other second order sensitivities of option prices to underlying price, volatility and time, seem to have a commonly accepted names: Gamma, Vanna, Charm, Vomma/Volga, Veta as documented here (...
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37 views

what is the state of the art method for hedging barrier options?

I want to create my own Barrier options for some security, I want to trade. I did some literature review, and found a static replication method, and many dynamic replication methods. I want to know ...
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70 views

Does an option need to be tradable for Black Scholes pricing formula to hold?

Given the classic Black-Scholes model, e.g. $dS(t)/S(t)=rdt+\sigma dW^{\mathbb{Q}}(t)$ with $S(0)=S_0$ and $dB(t)=rB(t)dt$ with $B(0)=1$, whereby $r$ and $\sigma$ are constants and $\mathbb{Q}$ ...
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35 views

Option arbitrage on two correlated or cointegrated underlying assets

If two indices are highly cointegrated, does it allow for some set of statistical arbitrage strategies for european options for which those indices are single underlyings ? Does answer change if ...
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17 views

What is the best method to factoring/calculating pre and post event volatility? Such as for company earnings

What is the best method to factoring/calculating pre and post event volatility? Such as for company earnings.
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45 views

Local volatility Formula and How To use it

I'm new to Volatility Modelling, so the content of this question may be completely wrong and th question naive. I'm reading "The volatility surface" by Gatheral. I'm trying to get a sense of the first ...
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2answers
131 views

Understanding $N(d_1)$ and $N(d_2)$

Firstly, if the solution to geometric Brownian motion is $S_t = S_0 \exp((r-\sigma^2)t + \sigma W_t$ then if I have a payment that is not necessarily a full call option e.g. if the exercise price $K$ ...
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46 views

Optimizing monte carlo code in python [closed]

What are they key points to use while coding a monte carlo simulation in python? I have the following monte carlo code : ...
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1answer
71 views

Duan (1995) GARCH Option Pricing Model with MATLAB

This is the MATLAB code that replicates the option pricing model proposed by Duan in his paper "The GARCH Option Pricing Model". However, the parameters estimated in the file do not match with the ...
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39 views

Calibration using only strike price

I have a binary option and want to calibrate it's BS pricing model. I only have a series of Strike Price vs the Option price, no knowledge on time to maturity, volatility, risk free rate or the ...
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1answer
77 views

Arbitrage free in a Black-Scholes/Poisson model

I am trying to solve the following exercise from Bjork's Arbitrage Theory in Continuous Time: Consider a model for the stock market where the short rate of interest $r$ is a deterministic ...
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35 views

Option pricing with definite integral

I would like to consider a slight generalisation of this question, which I recall here: At date of maturity $T_2$ the holder of a financial contract will obtain the amount: $$ \frac{1}{T_2−T_1}\...
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1answer
44 views

Caplet price under stochastic volatility is the black price integrated over volatility distribution

Hull&White 1987 state that when the brownian motion driving the volatility and the brownian motion driving the forward rate are uncorrelated, the caplet price under stochastic volatility is the ...
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1answer
65 views

Why and how is Implied volatility directly related to stock price but inversely related to strike price?

I know that in equity markets there is a volatility smirk which results in higher IV for lower strike price options because of crashophobia and leverage related factors but I can't wrap my head around ...
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2answers
153 views

Black-Scholes-Merton formula and option pricing

If the distribution is skewed to the right,Black-Scholes overprices out-of-the-money puts and in-the-money calls. It underprices in-the-money puts and out-of-the-money calls. How? Stock price log-...
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2answers
128 views

theoretical reason for which we can use monte carlo simulation for option pricing

The classic way to price an option is solving either analitically or numerically the associated PDE subject to the terminal and boundary conditions. An alternative approach is to use monte carlo ...
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1answer
91 views

Why might these options price so far from the square-root of duration?

In general, to first order, option prices rise with the square root of duration (i.e., time-to-expiration). I was just looking at puts on U.S. ETF FXI and they ...
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23 views

Is it possible to price a double barrier option which one barrier is monitored continuously while another barrier discretely without using MCS?

I am thinking about pricing a down-and-in and up-and-out double barrier put option under Black-Scholes assumption. The upper barrier is monitored continuously and the lower barrier is monitored ...
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1answer
76 views

Black Sholes option pricing with all but Delta [closed]

I'm trying to setup a little option pricing model in excel. I have all the information for the inputs (interest rate, IVs for different deltas, time to expiry, strike price, underlying price) but what ...
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1answer
67 views

Hedging an option on a non-traded asset in BS world

I have given the following task given. Suppose you are in a Black-Scholes World where you have the standard assets $$ dS_t = \mu S_t dt + \sigma S_t dW_t $$ $$ dB_t = r B_t dt $$ and now you also ...
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1answer
67 views

How to price a phoenix and snowball type autocallable options?

I'm currently studying the pricing of autocallable options, especially snowball (accumalated coupon) and phoenix (accumlated coupon, but the coupon may also be autocalled if the underlying price ...
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1answer
106 views

Question about volatility surfaces

As a learner, I'm curious to know the answer to 2 questions regarding volatility surfaces 1) It's stated that volatility surface should be flat accdording to Black-Scholes model. Why is that? Time (...
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69 views

option model value vs market price

In my job as FX trader we use as option pricer a variant of B&S. We use that model for “accounting” purpose, i.e. for storing the daily P&L of the portfolio, and also for control the trading ...
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1answer
130 views

evaluation of option pricing models based on Greeks empirical hedging effectiveness

I’ve studied many different pricing models (B&S, Vasicek, CIR, Merton jump, Heston, ecc), each of them gives as output a different price and different values for the Greeks. So, for example, if ...
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1answer
58 views

Can someone provide a good definitive explanation for rho in relation to option risks?

I have a pretty good understanding of option risks except for one thing, rho. Unfortunately, interest rates tend to have a small effect on option prices, and thus most literature tend to just gloss ...
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48 views

Cancelable Forward

How I could modeling a break forward or cancelable forward? Could I use Swaption model or only by montecarlo simulation? I have (X-F) for 2Y but I have option to cancel in 0,5Y by a premium price
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2answers
125 views

Pricing a government bond

I am reading the "Bond" article on investopedia on stumble on the way they price a government bond. Say that the interest rate at time $t=0$ is $r=10\%$. I buy a government bond with face value 1000\$...
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39 views

Why does nasdaq.com have such high Put IVs?

For the following monthly puts, nasdaq.com has very high IVs: WHR Sep 115 Put: 54.51% WDC Sep 42.5 Put: 66.94% When I run the above through http://www.option-...
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41 views

Rainbow option pricing formula under *Bachelier* model

Let's consider a call on min option on two underlying arithmetic Browniation motions $V_t$ and $H_t$ (no drift). Let $P_t$ denotes the price process of the option, $r$ the riskfree rate, $\tau$ the ...
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1answer
195 views

Where can I find a clear explanation (brief derivation) of N(d1) and N(d2)?

Where can I find a good explanation (perhaps with a brief derivation) of N(d1) and N(d2) from Black-Scholes? Just trying to understand the general idea about these 2 probability functions and how they ...
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1answer
162 views

Why is put-call parity defined differently by CME and Wikipedia?

In general, Wikipedia defines Put-Call parity as: C - P = D(F - K) ---------------- C = call price P = put price F = *FORWARD* price K = strike which can be re-...
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1answer
50 views

Can someone explain to me the intuition behind the discount factor for this simple payoff? [closed]

Let's say you enter into a contract today in which in time t, you receive the difference between the underlying stock price and 100. Denote the stock price as S. Why is today's value of such a ...
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1answer
47 views

Sensitivity Approximation - Crank Nicolson

I am looking into a new method of calculating sensitivities starting off with a proof of concept with Black Scholes PDE. Suppose I want to calculate Rho and take the derivative of the PDE (heresy!!) ...
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1answer
91 views

How do we calculate option payoff before expiration?

I am trying to simulate a bull spread option and I have used an online tutorial to calculate payoff at expiry but I am having difficulty simulating the payoff ...
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1answer
66 views

Binomial Option Pricing Model

This isn't homework. I'm going through sample questions for an exam. They include the answer, but no explanation. I've studied this model, but I don't know how to setup this tree to get any of the ...
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1answer
58 views

Modifying Basic Black Scholes Equation For Time Dependent Variables - Per Wilmott?

I am reading Wilmott's book and don't understand why he makes the following step to re-write the PDE. I get equation 8.4, that's just the typical PDE for a dividend yielding stock where r(t), D(t) ...
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1answer
48 views

Intrinsic value vs Time value of an option: what's the purpose/motivation for their definitions? [closed]

I am an actuarial student and our text has the following definitions: Intrinsic value: This is the payoff assuming the expiry of the contract immediately rather than at some future time. ...