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Questions tagged [options]

A contract that gives the owner the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell a security at a fixed price in the future.

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How to compute gamma for at-the-money regular calls and puts when they approach expiration?

When and at-the-money regular call or put approaches expiration, gamma tends to infinity. However, for practical purposes, there is only a finite change in delta. The problem is that if any of the ...
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20 views

Exposure of two companies in a transaction involving an FX option

An American company $A$ has sold a manufactured product to a German company $B$, and they agree for the payment of 100,000 EUR in 1 year ($T$). What type of exposure does $B$ have? What type of ...
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33 views

VXX Put pricing

Last week at Friday's close, the Dec 14 37.5 Put options were selling for \$.68 with VXX at \$40.29. This week at Friday's close, the Dec 21 37.5 Put options were selling for \$.38 with VXX at \$40.50....
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22 views

What is the use of undiscounted Futures/Option Prices

Reading the great book of Gatheral on Vol Surfaces (link) I can't help but notice that throughout he uses undiscounted option prices (though he obviously never assumed rates to be zero). See e.g. ...
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29 views

Synthetic equity index futures calendar spread using options

I understand it is possible to synthetic a future using long call and short put ATM options which has the same expiry as the futures. Can we do the following to synthetic a future calendar spread? $...
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81 views

How to interpret CDF($d_1$)/PDF($d_1$) from BS model ?

In my research on put options, I come across the ratio: $\frac{(1-\mathcal{N}(d_1))}{\mathcal{N'}(d_1)}$ where $d_1=\frac{\log(S/X)+(r+\sigma^2/2)t}{\sigma \sqrt{t}}$ and $\mathcal{N}(.)$ is the ...
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3answers
114 views

arbitrage free volatility surface

Why is calendar spread arbitrage equivalent to $\partial_t \omega(k,t) \geq 0, \forall k \in \Bbb{R}$ where $\omega(k,t) = \sigma^2(k,t) t$ and $\sigma(k,t)$ represents the Black-Scholes implied ...
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29 views

Index options for portfolio insurance

I'm studying the portfolio insurance using index options (Hull J.C. - Options, Futures and other derivatives - Ninth Ed., Ch. 17). More precisely I have a doubt in a specific part of the exercise ...
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1answer
79 views

Heston model computations

In the Heston model the dynamics of a single-asset $S$ are given by: $dS_t = rS_tdt+S_t \sqrt{V_t}dW^S$ where $W^s$ is a brownian-motion $W^S$ and the square root variance process $V$ is given by ...
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1answer
70 views

Basic questions on options, implied volatility and SPY

I am a bit confused about the impact of implied volatility on options, SPY options especially. I know that option's price decays with time and that is positively correlated with implied volatility but ...
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Storing data streamed using rtd.tos

I have been using rtd to stream stock and option data into Excel. I would like to take it a step further and store the values as they are streamed. Can anyone give ...
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98 views

Why are implied volatility and the volatility required for an option to be profitable two different things?

SPY currently trades at $278, a put option expiring in 7 days against SPY, at this strike price, quotes \$2.40. This means one person (the option buyer) is betting SPY will quote below $280.40 (278 + ...
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2answers
28 views

CME Eurodollar Option qoute

How are the premiums/prices for eurodollar options qouted. Does the option price for one underlying future contract equals the qoute*100. As I see the option price 9750 CALL expiring in Sept 2019 as ...
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2answers
68 views

ATM call option delta with low volatility

I put together some charts to understand how option greeks change. Can someone please explain why the delta of an ATM call option is 1 when vol is close to zero? I get that an increase in vol for OTM ...
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1answer
37 views

Do option contracts inherit the currency and exchange of the underlying?

Given an underlying (e.g. future or an index), would options on that underlying trade in the same currency and on the same exchange? For example, options on FTSE100 index itself would trade in GBP on ...
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1answer
48 views

Some questions of precious metal Futures

We always regard precious metal as a FX rate e.g XAU/USD. Is there any concept of spot rate for precious metal? If yes, then we know the dynamic of FX spot rate under risk neutral measure can be ...
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58 views

Simulating assets of different currencies

I have a situation as follows: One year call option on a Euro stock with a Euro denominated strike. Knock in feature as follows - The option can only pay out if the growth in the Euro stock over ...
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65 views

Binary Option model not tying to Bloomberg

I'm using the following Python code to value a currency binary option (USD/JPY) with the following inputs: Spot 113.75 Strike 102.16 Time = 3 years Volatility = 8.55% Rate Foreign = -0.738% Rate ...
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1answer
88 views

Calibration of parameters of implied vol smile

Here is the book Foreign Exchange Option Pricing: A Practitioner’s Guide, p.56 by Clark (2015). The context is a little bit long. I summery my understanding as follow: We first assume the form of ...
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94 views

Arbitrage from ATM option trading?

So I was testing out a collar options strategy (long put, short call, and long shares of the underlying stock) in a backtest for a school finance project, and the profits & losses are given by the ...
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0answers
65 views

Correlation sensitivity of Rainbow options

I read from various sources (eg. Exotic Options and Hybrids, M. Bouzoubaa) that the correlation sensitivity of Rainbow options (say a call price on a basket made of 50% of the best stock, 20% of the ...
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108 views

Discrete time option gamma hedging

1) An option $V$ under the Black-Scholes model is perfectly hedged when it is delta hedged continuously with the underlying $S$. When the hedging time is discrete, the delta $\Delta$ needs to take ...
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1answer
79 views

Implied volatility for American options- time to expiration?

I am trying to compute the implied volatility of the OBM contract (on Euronext), using R, and I was wondering if, for the time to maturity, I should put the time until the contract expires or the time ...
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1answer
92 views

How is the performance measure computed here?

The image is from John C Hull Textbook titled Options, Futures and Other Derivatives ( page 407 - Ninth Edition). The table above was obtained after computing the delta of stock price, shares ...
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1answer
57 views

Decreasing value of the Put option with increasing Time to maturity [closed]

Can you think of a situation when increasing the time to maturity lowers the value of a put option? If yes, show the example pls.
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1answer
201 views

Swaptions Gamma Interview Questions

A while ago, I interviewed for a trader role and was given the below assignment (I didn't get the job). I wanted to revisit the questions to learn from my mistakes and be better prepared next time. ...
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1answer
50 views

Gordon's dividend valuation model: Ignoring optionality

Currently studying some papers on Behavioral Finance (the dividend puzzle), which employ some basic valuation models, calculating stock's fundamental value $P_t$. The most known is the discount of ...
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1answer
68 views

Which securities have expirations more often than monthly?

I'd like to explore buying low-cost calls close to the money, so I'm looking for low time values in options premiums. This happens near options expiration. Unfortunately, most options expire on the ...
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2answers
92 views

Volatility Index for Industries

The VIX index is based on the S&P, I am wondering the feasibility of creating a VIX index for each of the S&P 500 Industries? Would this even be possible?
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1answer
66 views

Why Can I not estimate a CVAR from Heston Model

I fit the parameters of Heston model, using option data for SPX. Now I have the process S and P 500 is expected to follow. I make 100,000 simulations of this process and then calculate the expected ...
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1answer
45 views

Futures options data [duplicate]

I've been looking into futures options data for my thesis. What are some sources to get futures options data for an affordable price?
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0answers
60 views

Barrier Shifts - necessary for up-and-out call / down-and-in put?

Recently I came across the topic of barrier shift for barrier/digital options. I found that most examples centred around down-and-in puts / up-and-in call / digitals. I am wondering if we need ...
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48 views

Cash-or-nothing and Asset-or-nothing price derivation

I was wondering how to derive the price of a cash-or-nothing and asset-or-nothing option by trying to work out the expectation under the risk-neutral measure, while assuming that the underlying ...
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1answer
74 views

How is FX cross rates options are priced?

Say I have market for EUR/USD and also USD/CAD, how would EUR/CAD would be priced and hedged in practice? What are good papers/book chapters to read on that? (Assuming basic knowledge already on ...
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1answer
67 views

Basic Replication of European Call Option

I am looking at the very basics of replicating an option with a portfolio of risky and risk free assets. As such we can define a portfolio of $x$ no. of shares, $y$ bonds & $z$ options at time $(T)...
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35 views

“1.#QNB”, “-1.#IND”, “-1.#IND00”, “1.#QNAN0” for CBOE Option Greeks

Currently in the process of importing options historical .csv data from the CBOE Datashop Some of the greeks contain the values 1.#QNAN0, ...
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98 views

Usages of variance swap

I’m interested in variance swap. Considered from its feature, variance swap is used for betting the (historical) volatility of underlying asset. If we use it for hedge tool of Vega or Volga, does it ...
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1answer
84 views

Why futures pricing not calculated like options?

I have read about futures and options ( from online resources ). I only have the basic understanding,not math heavy ( for eg. for Black Scholes I know only the intuitive idea from the khan academy ...
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56 views

Option order imbalance

Currently studying the paper: HU, Jianfeng. Does Option Trading Convey Stock Price Information?. (2014). Journal of Financial Economics. 111, (3), 625-645. Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School ...
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1answer
117 views

Risk management tools for long term Gamma/Vega sellers subject to margin calls

TL;DR: if you're a retail investor and you systematically sell long-term vertical spreads while staying Delta-neutral, your main risk comes from Vega and the Gamma of opening gaps that can throw you ...
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1answer
51 views

Strategy to write uncovered put and call

I found a strategy called "covered combo" where you sell 1 put, 1 call, and purchase 100 shares of the underlying; is there a name for doing this without purchasing the 100 shares?
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1answer
41 views

Why can't an options writer volunteer for assignment on exercise

I'm asking more for a policy perspective. I called the brokerage firms I use and asked about volunteering myself for assignment if a written OTM option becomes ITM and a holder somewhere exercises. ...
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1answer
30 views

Is the assignment of exercised options “truly” random

Everyone seems to say that assignment of exercised options is random; does it just appear random to an outside viewer or does the exchange pick a name from hat for assignment?
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1answer
59 views

ATMF FX straddle delta

I am trying to price an ATMF FX (say Usdidr) straddle - the fxdelta for call and put leg are quite different with put fxdelta being higher than call delta. (Absolute values) Why would this be the case?...
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1answer
107 views

Buy and Hold P&L for options

I want to calculate the buy and hold P&L for an option in the following "extreme" scenario: Valuation date = t Calculate B&H P&L from t to t+1 Option maturity: t+2 ATM option Due to the ...
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1answer
59 views

Benefits of systematically trading OTC options instead of exchange-traded options

Is there a case to trade liquid OTC options (FX, single-name equity, swaptions, etc.) instead of exchange-traded index options in a systematic strategy?
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1answer
128 views

Conditional Probability - Geometric Brownian Motion

Background I am trying to find a way to price a variant of a gap option by using closed-end expressions. What makes this option a bit tricky is that it can be exercised at four predetermined dates (t=...
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2answers
93 views

P&L Calculation of Option Strategy

I have designed a call writing option strategy, where I am rolling the options upon expiry, i.e., my portfolio consists of one short call position at any given time. I have a time series of the value ...
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1answer
65 views

Swing option pricing in QuantLib-Python

Is it possible to use the QuantLib python wrapper to price swing options? I've seen the QuantLib Github repository contains a C++ implementation, swingoption.cpp, but have found no reference to swing ...
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28 views

Importance sampling procedure

I need someone to explain me the importance sampling method. There are several topics but the drift parameter $\theta$ when adjusting is never discussed. I read publications where $\theta$ was used ...