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Questions tagged [options]

A contract that gives the owner the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell a security at a fixed price in the future.

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19 views

Bachelier Pricing Formula for Interest Rate Binary Options

Similarly to the Black and Scholes formula, I am looking to replicate Bachelier's caplet formula with two digital options: (1) asset-or-nothing (forward rate in this case) and (2) cash-or-nothing. For ...
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2answers
161 views

Justification of Levered ETFs?

I have done some basic research on levered ETFs and cant understand them completely How do you justify the existence of Levered ETFs when margin accounts are available? E.g. If I want 3X SPY returns, ...
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1answer
65 views

VXX Put pricing

Last week at Friday's close, the Dec 14 37.5 Put options were selling for \$.68 with VXX at \$40.29. This week at Friday's close, the Dec 21 37.5 Put options were selling for \$.38 with VXX at \$40.50....
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2answers
32 views

Seagull Spread payoffs

I'm looking at different option strategies and the ways that their payoffs differ (and therefore how they can differently be used). I'm looking at the long seagull (buy a call spread and sell a put), ...
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2answers
50 views

Synthetic equity index futures calendar spread using options

I understand it is possible to synthetic a future using long call and short put ATM options which has the same expiry as the futures. Can we do the following to synthetic a future calendar spread? $...
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1answer
26 views

Iron condor with positive vega

I am backtesting this Iron Condor before earnings. In the position summary Vega (Mid Quote) is -3.04\$ but in the chart below (IV vs Profit $) it's clearly shown that a decrease in volatility will ...
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1answer
42 views

Probability ITM formula for options

Given a stock of price price and annual volatility annual_volatility, and given an option with strike price ...
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2answers
108 views

How is volatility different from variance?

I always thought volatility was just variance ^ (1/2). Now I'm reading this book and it's saying that the two are different concepts. Excerpts include: Partly due to its use in Black-Scholes, ...
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1answer
73 views

Delta hedging/Gamma PnL

Suppose I am long USDIDR straddle with my start of the day delta being USD10m long IDR and USDIDR gamma being $5m. There is a 1% intra-day IDR strengthening, so my delta becomes roughly long IDR 15m....
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4answers
263 views

How to calculate return on investment for an adjustment to a complex options position?

Say I currently hold a set of options positions with the same symbol/expiry that collectively have a net present value based on the estimated value at expiration of +10. I could also liquidate the ...
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13answers
15k views

Why Drifts are not in the Black Scholes Formula

This question has puzzled me for a while. We all know geometric brownian motions have drifts $\mu$: $dS / S = \mu dt + \sigma dW$ and different stocks have different drifts of $\mu$. Why would ...
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3answers
1k views

Writing an Options Strategy Backtester

I've been doing some digging, and this question has been asked many times in various forms over the years - Backtesting Options Strategies in R Are there any good tools for backtesting options ...
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1answer
775 views

FX Option strikes from ATM, RR, BF quotes

I am trying to replicate the results in Consistent Pricing of FX Options, A. Castagna and F. Mercurio. However, when I calculate the strike prices for 25-delta put and call and ATM I cannot get the ...
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2answers
689 views

Market data for options

Looking for recommendations on places to get market data for options. I'm looking at NYSE and NASDAQ only. My current solution is my broker, Tradeking. I can request realtime data for 700 option ...
4
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1answer
94 views

Splitting theta from vol carry

What is the best way to splitting theta and vol carry on say a long calendar trade? Basically trying to split the "good" carry component of a trade from the "bad" carry (theta) which could be earned ...
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1answer
81 views

How is FX cross rates options are priced?

Say I have market for EUR/USD and also USD/CAD, how would EUR/CAD would be priced and hedged in practice? What are good papers/book chapters to read on that? (Assuming basic knowledge already on ...
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1answer
237 views

Exercise Probabilities Vanilla Cap/Foor

When looking at the discounted pay-off formulas of a vanilla caplet and a vanilla floorlet $\frac{\Delta\tau}{1+r_k\Delta\tau}\max(r_k-r_{cap},0)$ $\frac{\Delta\tau}{1+r_k\Delta\tau}\max(r_{floor}-...
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1answer
78 views

Basic Replication of European Call Option

I am looking at the very basics of replicating an option with a portfolio of risky and risk free assets. As such we can define a portfolio of $x$ no. of shares, $y$ bonds & $z$ options at time $(T)...
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0answers
24 views

Data request: Option prices for a liquid index/stock

Currently doing a course project on option pricing as a part of my undergraduate studies. However I cannot find a free dataset $D=[d_1,d_2,...,d_N]$, which would represent a time-serie of daily option ...
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0answers
23 views

About buying and selling a cumulative parisian options

I ask my question here because I want to know more about the cumulative Parisian options introduced by M. Chesney, Mr. Jeanblanc-Picué and Mr. Yor in 1997, then developed by Hugonnier in 1999 and F. ...
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3answers
72 views

How to compute gamma for at-the-money regular calls and puts when they approach expiration to avoid explosion of portfolio's gamma?

When and at-the-money regular call or put approaches expiration, gamma tends to infinity. However, for practical purposes, there is only a finite change in delta. The problem is that if any of the ...
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1answer
35 views

Filter options used in the construction of implied volatility surface

Currently trying to model the IV Surface using the APPL options, to compare how different models of the underlying move the IV Surface. However, after getting the data, I've seen that some option ...
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1answer
71 views

Why Can I not estimate a CVAR from Heston Model

I fit the parameters of Heston model, using option data for SPX. Now I have the process S and P 500 is expected to follow. I make 100,000 simulations of this process and then calculate the expected ...
3
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1answer
127 views

Who trades exchange options in practice (Margrabe's formula)?

I'm currently studying the pricing of the exchange option. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margrabe%27s_formula While I can appreciate the theory, who actually buys these options in practice? Are ...
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0answers
36 views

Valuing stock employee compensation securities

This may be a simple question but I wonder if Im oversimplifying it. I'm trying to decide how to value different Stock Employee compensations and in particular a Stock Appreciation Rights (SAR) Reward....
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0answers
16 views

Transform American Future Options to European Forward Options

I am trying to reproduce the results of the paper Bond Variance Risk Premiums. In the online appendix A they noted their metholodology. I have a data set of American future and option prices on these ...
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1answer
82 views

Which securities have expirations more often than monthly?

I'd like to explore buying low-cost calls close to the money, so I'm looking for low time values in options premiums. This happens near options expiration. Unfortunately, most options expire on the ...
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2answers
556 views

asian option – exotic option – real data, authentic examples?

I would be pleased if any of You can give me the real example of an asian option (or other exotic option) that is being traded or that is offered by some institution. I have been searching the whole ...
5
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1answer
130 views

Risk management tools for long term Gamma/Vega sellers subject to margin calls

TL;DR: if you're a retail investor and you systematically sell long-term vertical spreads while staying Delta-neutral, your main risk comes from Vega and the Gamma of opening gaps that can throw you ...
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1answer
122 views

How to show arbitrage when a European option price is greater than the no-arbitrage price?

My example is: Current price = 20, If it goes up it'll be worth 22, if it goes down it will be worth 18 risk free rate: 12%, time = 3 months Strike = 21 call option is worth 0.633 I know that if the ...
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0answers
31 views

What is the use of undiscounted Futures/Option Prices

Reading the great book of Gatheral on Vol Surfaces (link) I can't help but notice that throughout he uses undiscounted option prices (though he obviously never assumed rates to be zero). See e.g. ...
4
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3answers
171 views

arbitrage free volatility surface

Why is calendar spread arbitrage equivalent to $\partial_t \omega(k,t) \geq 0, \forall k \in \Bbb{R}$ where $\omega(k,t) = \sigma^2(k,t) t$ and $\sigma(k,t)$ represents the Black-Scholes implied ...
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3answers
350 views

Tracking error Black Scholes

Suppose an asset follows the SDE $$ d S_{t}^{1} = \mu S_{t}^{1} dt + \sigma_{t} S_{t}^{1} d W_{t} $$ Furthermore assume that $r = 0$ and a trader who uses Black-Scholes for pricing and hedging with ...
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3answers
4k views

Why is the price of a call option with $K=0$ equal to the price of the stock $S_0$?

In a case of a call option with strike $K=0$, then payoff at expiration time $T$ is equal to: $$(S_T-0,0)^{+}=S_T$$ In reality the price of the option on the date of maturity is never equal to the ...
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0answers
102 views

How to interpret CDF($d_1$)/PDF($d_1$) from BS model ?

In my research on put options, I come across the ratio: $\frac{(1-\mathcal{N}(d_1))}{\mathcal{N'}(d_1)}$ where $d_1=\frac{\log(S/X)+(r+\sigma^2/2)t}{\sigma \sqrt{t}}$ and $\mathcal{N}(.)$ is the ...
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2answers
9k views

Why FX Vanilla Options are quoted in volatility

I've been curious why vanilla options are quoted (and traded) in terms of volatility. Considering that every financial institution has its own options pricing model, volatility as an input would cause ...
4
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1answer
95 views

Heston model computations

In the Heston model the dynamics of a single-asset $S$ are given by: $dS_t = rS_tdt+S_t \sqrt{V_t}dW^S$ where $W^s$ is a brownian-motion $W^S$ and the square root variance process $V$ is given by ...
3
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1answer
83 views

Basic questions on options, implied volatility and SPY

I am a bit confused about the impact of implied volatility on options, SPY options especially. I know that option's price decays with time and that is positively correlated with implied volatility but ...
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1answer
342 views

Differences between Snowball, KIKO and TRF derivatives?

Can you explain what are some similarities and differences between snowball, KIKO (knock in knock out) and TRF (target redemption forward) derivatives?
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3answers
1k views

Problems with local volatility models (vs stochastic volatility models)

Why is pricing with local volatility models are problem with exotics, mainly due to "the volatility surface is the market's current view of volatility and this will change in the future meaning the ...
5
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3answers
808 views

Forward implied volatility

Can one price accurately by only using vanilla options a derivative that is exposed/sensitive mainly to the forward volatility ? If it is impossible in the real world, what do we mean by saying "...
7
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3answers
548 views

Parameters for pricing option on EDF

Ladies and Gents, Im writing a quick routine to calculate implied vols for options on EUR$ futures with Bloomberg data. My question concerns the part where I have all my inputs and am ready to pass ...
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1answer
112 views

Why are implied volatility and the volatility required for an option to be profitable two different things?

SPY currently trades at $278, a put option expiring in 7 days against SPY, at this strike price, quotes \$2.40. This means one person (the option buyer) is betting SPY will quote below $280.40 (278 + ...
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2answers
75 views

ATM call option delta with low volatility

I put together some charts to understand how option greeks change. Can someone please explain why the delta of an ATM call option is 1 when vol is close to zero? I get that an increase in vol for OTM ...
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2answers
30 views

CME Eurodollar Option qoute

How are the premiums/prices for eurodollar options qouted. Does the option price for one underlying future contract equals the qoute*100. As I see the option price 9750 CALL expiring in Sept 2019 as ...
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1answer
39 views

Do option contracts inherit the currency and exchange of the underlying?

Given an underlying (e.g. future or an index), would options on that underlying trade in the same currency and on the same exchange? For example, options on FTSE100 index itself would trade in GBP on ...
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1answer
49 views

Some questions of precious metal Futures

We always regard precious metal as a FX rate e.g XAU/USD. Is there any concept of spot rate for precious metal? If yes, then we know the dynamic of FX spot rate under risk neutral measure can be ...
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3answers
192 views

How does Rho behaves with moneyness of option?

I was trying to find the relationship between nature of Rho and moneyness of the option. After finding certain values I found that Rho Value keep increases as the option gets further in the money. ...
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4answers
596 views

European Call Option Delta Upper Bound

For a pure equity process (with interest rate, dividend, etc., being zero) not necessarily the geometric Brownian motion, is the delta of a European call option always no higher than $1$? I am NOT ...
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0answers
59 views

Simulating assets of different currencies

I have a situation as follows: One year call option on a Euro stock with a Euro denominated strike. Knock in feature as follows - The option can only pay out if the growth in the Euro stock over ...