# Questions tagged [options]

A contract that gives the owner the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell a security at a fixed price in the future.

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### Equity option demand and supply

Some academic studies have documented that market makers short index option and long equity option on net. It is easy to understand that Non market makers want to buy index option because of their ...
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### construction of 25 delta butterfly

Could anyone explain why the 25-delta butterfly strategy is constructed by 0.5*(25-delta call + 25-delta put) - ATM straddle? Especially, what the term "25-delta" represents in "25-delta butterfly ...
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### Derivation of the formulas for the values of European asset-or-nothing and cash-or-nothing options

The asset-or-nothing European option pays at t = T the value of the stock when at time T that value exceeds or is equal to the exercise price E, and nothing if the value of the stock is below E. So, ...
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### Why does the price of a butterfly spread increase are rate exponential [closed]

I know that stock prices are assumed to be Stochastic processes that follow Geometric brownian motion. The expectation of stock prices at time T given stock price at time 0 is: $e^{-rT}S_0$. However, ...
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### Which currency to hedge a position in FX options?

Let's assume a bank sells to a client a put of \$1,000,000 dollars on USDJPY at 110 in 6 months. The delta of this put is -0.6, spot is 112. So to hedge its position the bank has to short \$600,000 ...
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### Replicating portfolio with stock, bond and call option

I am trying to interpret: I am having trouble interpreting the replicating strategy: Context: $\phi$ is a generic payoff function, 0 < S < $\infty$, assumed throughout to be twice ...
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### What causes the call and put volatility surface to differ?

I currently have a local volatility model that uses the standard Black Scholes assumptions. When calculating the volatility surface, what causes the difference between the call volatility surface, ...
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### Are vega vanna volga methods/models used in equity derivatives or only in FX and why?

Vega vanna volga models seem to be popular is the FX derivatives market and are often calibrated via 25 delta risk reversal, vega weighted butterfly, and ATM straddle quotes. I am wondering if they ...
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### Reading this ichimoku cloud how do you read this wdfc chart?

Having trouble reading the charts as the breakouts aren’t clear What do you see in this chart?
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### Data sources for historical ICE settlement option prices, volume & open interest

I am looking for long history for historical settlement option prices, volume & open interest at ICE Europe (specifically fixed income). This seems to be more challenge than I could imagine. ICE ...
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### For which would you expect the liquidity on instrument X to be the greatest: its spot, future, option or swap?

Would like $X$ to remain general, but if needed, let's say GBPUSD Exchange Rate. By liquidity I mean overal market volume across exchanges / ease of opening and closing positions / total notional ...
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### Implying a required rate of return on an option from the required rate of return on the underlying

Is it possible to imply a required rate of return on an option from a required rate of return on the underlying? For example, given a known cost of equity, can you calculate the required rate of ...
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### Log Contracts on Equities

Are log contracts on (e.g) equities traded a lot in the market? I have seen that a lot of it is described for volatility modelling in bergomi's book. what is the liquidity of such options?
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### Options basics needs to be cleared

I'm not clear for the terminology of options and the mechanics of it. Any help is appreciated. For example the following statement: European call option of Apple stock with maturity 1 year and ...
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### Why do options market makers make their spread as wide as the corresponding vega?

I've heard that option market makers make their bid ask spread as wide as the vega of the contract they are quoting. If the quoted spread is narrower than the vega of the option it is said that the ...
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### Pricing of a Foreign Exchange Vanilla Option

To understand how Bloomberg prices foreign exchange vanilla options , I extract the following screenshot from its OVML function. The Black-Scholes formua for vanilla options are \begin{split} & P=...
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### Why do some people claim the delta of an ATM call option is 0.5?

I am looking for a mathematical proof in terms of differentiating the BS equation to calculate Delta and then prove it that ATM delta is equal to 0.5. I have seen many books quoting delta of ATM call ...
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### Intuitive explanation of why ITM options have low Time/Extrinsic Values?

While brushing up on my knowledge about the Greeks, I have been struggling coming up with an intuitive, probability-based explanation behind why not only Out-of-the-Money (OTM), but also In-the-Money (...
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### Relationship between portfolios at $t=0$ based on $t=T$

I have two portfolios $V$ and $U$ given by $$V(S,t) = C-P \\ U(S,t) = S-Ee^{r(t-T)} \\$$ where $P$ and $C$ denote a put and call option with the same maturity time $T$ and strike price $E$, ...
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### Option pricing: Relationship between Theta and early exercise

I am confused about the following: For a European put option, the parameter $\Theta$ is given by $$\Theta= \frac{d V}{dt} = -\frac{SN'(d_1) \sigma}{2 \sqrt{T-t}} + rK e^{-r(T-t)}N(-d_2).$$ My ...
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### Effect of interest rate on options prices

This might be another basic derivatives question. When interest rate rises, stock prices generally fall. Assuming an option's underlying is a stock, this should lower the option's price as well. ...
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### Historical quotes / prices of multiasset options

I am working on Lévy copulas, and I would like to try calibrating such techniques on real data. Where can I find quotes for multi-asset options? It could be exchange options or any other type of ...
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### Are the price of vanilla bull/bear spread constructed by calls and puts same?

We know that both bull and bear can be constructed by either two calls or two puts. Say if given two strikes, will price of bull call equal to price of bull put?
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### What is the name (Greek) for sensitivity of an option's Theta to the Time to maturity?

All other second order sensitivities of option prices to underlying price, volatility and time, seem to have a commonly accepted names: Gamma, Vanna, Charm, Vomma/Volga, Veta as documented here (...
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### How to shock the IV surface w.r.t VIX and keep AOA

I have to compute the sensitivity of a set of option prices on a single sotck (range of tenor is over the whole surface) to an increase of 100% in the VIX.. and I am trying to get to the most ...
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### what is the state of the art method for hedging barrier options?

I want to create my own Barrier options for some security, I want to trade. I did some literature review, and found a static replication method, and many dynamic replication methods. I want to know ...