Questions tagged [options]

A contract that gives the owner the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell a security at a fixed price in the future.

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12
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1answer
404 views

What drives changes in implied volatility on ETFs/ETNs?

I thought implied volatility, as well as the VIX, primarily increase due to increases in the underlying asset's volatility, as well as the options themselves being bid up because more people were ...
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1answer
1k views

what is the best way to calculate the probability of an equity option ending in the money?

Given historical implied volatility and all other know variables (stock price, option strike price, option expiration date, dividend rate, interest rate) what is the best way to calculate the ...
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2answers
1k views

Can we replicate a call option without borrowing and make it cheaper in this way?

I learned how to price a European call option using this video lecture. The considered case is very simple. The call option gives the right to buy 100 Euros for 100 Dollars in one month from now. The ...
12
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2answers
1k views

Can you fully hedge an option in the presence of counterparty risk?

The derivation of the Black-Scholes model assumes no counterparty risk. Does the presence of counterparty risk invalidate the argument behind the model? EDIT: The question is about options in general,...
9
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3answers
6k views

How does an option's time value depend on moneyness?

How does an option's time value (also known as extrinsic or instrumental value) depend on how far it is in the money or out of the money? In other words, how does the time value change as the ...
8
votes
1answer
851 views

How sensitive are vertical spreads to changes in implied volatility?

How sensitive are vertical spreads to changes in volatility / implied volatility in the money, at the money, and out of the money? I'm thinking for 1 point spreads this would be very small / neutral ...
4
votes
1answer
328 views

Which approach is better for modeling option exercise strategies, rational or behavioral?

This question is most relevant to the evaluation of embedded options, such as the refinancing option granted to borrowers in the mortgage and bank loan markets, or the call option present in some ...
6
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1answer
2k views

How would I value a perpetual bond with an embedded option?

I am trying to work out how to value the following transactions. It should be straight forward, since it breaks down into a series of well known instruments, yet I am not sure how to evaluate it: ...
11
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1answer
302 views

How to handle coupon payments when pricing a bond with an embedded option?

I'm using a binomial tree to price a bond that has an embedded call or put option. On every node that has a coupon payment, do you include the coupon payment then max/min out the value, or do you max/...
5
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1answer
1k views

How to apply quasi-Monte Carlo to path-dependent options?

Following up on my recent question on variance reduction in a Cox-Ingersoll-Ross Monte Carlo simulation, I would like to learn more about using a quasi-random sequence, such as Sobol or Niederreiter, ...
2
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2answers
162 views

Buying one company or index against another, is this readily possible with options, with an accurate return (also Alpha Indexes)

There's a relatively new product in the market / on the Nasdaq called Alpha Indexes. It lets one own a company -- e.g. Apple, GE, Google, etc -- as the difference between how that company does (the "...
4
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3answers
341 views

Given markets usually fall fast and rise slowly, are there trading mechanisms to take advantage of this?

Per a previous question on this topic -- markets generally fall fast and rise slowly: what options strategies or other strategies can one use to take advantage of this common occurrence?
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1answer
884 views

Does an option's price “ratio” with the underlying security price?

I'm trying to understand option pricing better. Let's say security ABC is \$40, and a 38 PUT option with 40% implied volatility (and 90 days till expiration) is priced at X. If security ABC then ...
4
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1answer
651 views

What are good conditions to roll a leap further out in time?

If you're hedging with a back month / leap option, what are good underlying / market conditions to move this option out even further in time? For simplicity, let's say you own a call with 6 months ...
8
votes
2answers
747 views

What changes to put-call parity are necessary when evaluating american options on non-dividend paying assets?

If an underlying doesn't pay dividends (for our purpose defined as any distribution to the underlying's holder) directly or indirectly (e.g. options on futures) how does put-call parity change from ...
7
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1answer
1k views

Can options volume have an impact on the price of the underlying asset?

Can options volume affect the underlying asset price indirectly? I know that options buying/selling does not directly affect the price of the underlying asset (rather, the asset price contributes most ...
1
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1answer
512 views

Calculating Theta assuming other variables remain the same

Is there any way to calculate theta at X day in future based solely on knowing 1) Total Current Option Price 2) Days Till Expiration How would this be done? Thank you
4
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1answer
634 views

Standard Deviations out the money where options will respond to underlying asset price changes

Is there an understood way of determining how far out the money an option can be, before it starts/stops responding to the underlying asset price changes? I usually look at the greeks, gamma, delta, ...
2
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0answers
256 views

Tian third moment-matching tree with smoothing - implementation

I was wondering if someone has an implementation of the Tian third moment-matching tree (http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1030143) with smoothing in code (e.g. c++, vba, c#, etc.)? ...
5
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1answer
412 views

In a covered call strategy, should I hold the call or sell/roll if the delta becomes too small?

I am tweaking a covered call algorithm. The short leg consists of out of the money call options. The goal is to collect the tim premium, but an equally favorable circumstance is when the call ...
8
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2answers
824 views

How can one determine approximately what percentage of options trades are buyer-initiated vs. seller-initiated?

How can one determine approximately what percentage of options trades are buyer-initiated vs. seller-initiated? What measures of order flow are available specifically for options, preferably for ...
8
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2answers
341 views

What do we really mean by put-call ratio and how should it be expressed?

I need to calculate the put-call ratio for an American option. But I'm a complete naïf: I don't know how. I think I'd use the put open interest and the call open interest. I can imagine two ways to ...
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0answers
476 views

Delta-Omega Hedging [closed]

I am currently trying to understand the in's and out's of options and more specifically hedging. I came across a document that was talking about Delta Hedging which is just making sure the delta of ...
2
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1answer
1k views

What exactly is the annualized forward premium?

A forward contract has a premium of $ 0$ because it is an obligation to buy or sell something in the future (hence there is more risk). Call and put options, on the other hand, have premiums of $C$ ...
8
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2answers
258 views

What is more appropriate: the EMA of the option price or the EMA of the underlying?

I'm progressing, all too slowly, on a site that aims to show real-time numbers for options that are listed on the CBOE. Most of the instantaneous numbers are all set. Now I'm going to pay attention to ...
12
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1answer
286 views

How should FX options be priced when a currency is artificially capped?

The question is inspired by yesterday's (06/09/11) historic announcement by the Swiss National Bank that it would impose a ceiling on the franc of 1.20 against the euro. I would like to know if there ...
6
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2answers
594 views

What does put-call parity imply about option premiums?

We know that $$C-P = PV(F_{0,T}-K)$$ When we create a synthetic forward, we buy call and sell a put at the same strike price $K$. When we buy the call why do we assume the premium is positive? When ...
13
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1answer
2k views

How should I estimate the implied volatility skew term when calculating the skew-adjusted delta?

I'm trying to come up with the implied volatility skew adjusted delta for SPY options. I'm working with the following formula: Skew Adjusted Delta = Black Scholes Delta + Vega * Vol Skew Slope. I ...
9
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1answer
491 views

How do you calculate the implied liquidity of an option?

How does one calculate the implied liquidity of a specific option contract given a set of vanilla puts and calls with various strikes and maturities on a single underlying?
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3answers
7k views

Why hold options when you can dynamically replicate their payoff?

When holding vanilla options, you can cancel out, theoretically, all risk with dynamic (delta) hedging. Then you earn the "risk free rate of return". Why would you make such a portfolio when you can ...
9
votes
2answers
2k views

Can one use options on Treasury futures to hedge a portfolio?

Can one use options on Treasury bond futures to hedge a typical fixed income portfolio? If so, how can one estimate the duration for an option on a Treasury futures contract, and taking this a step ...
15
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1answer
2k views

Is QuantLib more trouble than it's worth?

I'm just starting to work with QuantLib and wonder if I'm going down a very wrong path. I'm working on a site that presents the visitor with a table of streamed real-time options data, including ...
8
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1answer
197 views

Quantifying Hedging Error Due To Expiration Day Range?

Let's say I have two call option liabilities that I want to statically hedge with a single call option. Liabilities: Liab_Call_1: Strike: 100 Notional: 1000 DaysToExpiration: 20 Liab_Call_2: ...
7
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1answer
278 views

Modeling liquidity effect on option prices

What are practically useful ways of modelling the effect of liquidity on options?
5
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1answer
537 views

European turbo warrants

Totally new to the world of quant finance, so perhaps this is an odd question... Does there exist an American equivalent to the German style "knock out zertifkate"? (The name might be slightly wrong....
10
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2answers
636 views

What are the major models for energy derivatives, particularly electricity derivatives?

Aside from Black-Scholes with crazy skews, what major models are used for energy derivatives? I'm thinking particularly of electricity derivatives, but I'm also interested in natural gas and other ...
4
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2answers
551 views

Hedgefund-like behavior for covered call selling account?

I make money selling covered calls on FX spot options, and some of my friends want to buy in to this without having to trade their own accounts. One method is for each of them to get an account, ...
7
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2answers
1k views

How to derive appropriate volatility for a binary option (with strike/term) from market data?

I am valuing a binary FX option (european) with a defined strike and term (2Y). I'm using a closed form solution based on Black-Scholes framework. How can I derive the appropriate volatility to use ...
7
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2answers
1k views

Heuristics for calculating theoretical probabilities of being ITM at time T for listed options

I'm looking for a heuristic way to calculate the probabilities of being in the money at expiry for non-defined risk options combinations (listed options). I use delta as a proxy for this probability ...
10
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3answers
1k views

How would one price a “credit event binary option”?

CBOE has introduced credit event binary options, kind of as a retail trader's CDS. These binary options are worth $1 if there is a credit event (ie, bankruptcy) before expiration, and $0 if there is ...
8
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1answer
1k views

Simple model for option premium (for covered call simulation)?

Given a historical distribution of weekly prices and price changes for a stock, how can I estimate the the option premium for a nearly at-the-money (ATM) option, say with an expiration date 3 months ...
11
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2answers
2k views

Is there a technique for using xts or zoo objects with options data (i.e., many entries per date) in R?

I am starting to work with options data from optionmetrics. I use data frames, but it seems like xts or zoo objects are the way to go for features and speed. I can't figure out the best work-around to ...
13
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1answer
201 views

Breaking Transactions Down into Derivatives

We were talking about merger arb in a class I had last night, and when we got do deal construction it was mentioned that the different ways can be viewed as different options. For instance a fixed ...
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0answers
304 views

Can you implement a condor options trading strategy in a spreadsheet? [closed]

Can you implement a condor options trading strategy in a spreadsheet? Could you give an example?