# Questions tagged [portfolio]

A portfolio is a collection of financial instruments. We often collect instruments together to represent the complete holdings of an investor and to analyze the overall risk (which may be lower due to diversification, i.e the portfolio holding multiple instruments).

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24 views

### What does a Sharpe ratio equal to 1 mean?

They said a portfolio with a Sharpe ratio greater than 1 is good, but what does a Sharpe ratio equal to 1 mean? Also, what does this amount say about the portfolio's concentration?
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### Assumptions of the CAPM

As to my understanding, the CAPM assumes that all investors behave as described in the portfolio theory. Consequently, all investors hold a combination of the risk-free investment and the efficient ...
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### Relation between CAPM and Portfolio Theory

can any of you explain to me in simple terms how CAPM and portfolio theory are related to each other? To my understanding: Portfolio theory helps to select the "right" stocks under risk/...
53 views

### Minimum variance portfolio's analytical solution, but assuming $t$-distribution

$$\boldsymbol{w} = \frac{\boldsymbol{\Sigma}^{-1} \boldsymbol{1} }{\boldsymbol{1}' \boldsymbol{\Sigma}^{-1} \boldsymbol{1}}$$ is the well known closed-form analytical solution to the minimum ...
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### Why is standard error used to show diversification effect for unsystematic risk?

quite long text incoming, sorry for that: While reading a corporate finance textbook, i came across a section describing the effect of diversification as well as the systematic and unsystematic risk. ...
35 views

### Covariance/correlation matrix from data with missing data points

I have a data set with index fund quotes, and I'm trying to compute the efficient portfolio frontier for it. But some data points are missing. In some cases there are few funds that trading even on ...
39 views

### internal rate of return ((M/X)IRR ?) of a fund

I have the following data for a fund. The contributions come from the LPs (i.e., the investors invest more in the fund, or withdraw money from the fund), MV stands for market value. The timing is not ...
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### Ranking assets by covariance vs correlation

After every change in portfolio (i.e. every trade), I need to calculate a price for each asset in my portfolio. But the calculator is slow. So I want to order the sequence of price updates, from the ...
40 views

### Portfolio Performance Attribution Using Carino Smoothing

I'm trying to conduct portfolio performance attribution using Carino smoothing, but it seems that the active returns do not match and I don't know why. Here is the example I use: \begin{array} {|r|r|r|...
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### Notation of long/short positions in defining a portfolio [closed]

I am a bit confused with the sign-related abbreviations used when we refer to long or short position on assets in a portfolio. For example denote the stock price, $S_t$ and the bond price, $B_t$ and ...
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### Portfolio vs individual security Sharpe and Sortino ratios

For an individual security calculating it's Sharpe and Sortino ratios is straightforward. What I'm curious about is the following: Let's say I have a portfolio of several securities, which is a ...
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### How to deal with missing stock returns?

If I want to calculate the Covariance between two stocks but there are missing days in both, how can I deal with missing data? I want to use Pairwise deletion and only use the days of which both ...
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### Ito's differential in portfolio dynamics

I try to be as concise as possible. Basically I'm following the text "Arbitrage Theory in Continuous Time", by Tomas Bjork. I put here the point where I'm stuck: Chapter 6 - Portfolio ...
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### How to adjust a portfolio's rate of return for contributions and withdrawals?

Suppose we have a portfolio with many assets. Since this portfolio receives monthly contributions and withdrawals, what is the best method to evaluate its global rate of return and avoid computing ...
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### What is the formula for the global minimum variance portfolio with positive weights?

I know how to algebraically solve for the weights when short selling is allowed but I can’t seem to find the formula for when it’s strictly positive an the weights sum to 1 anywhere online.
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### Why do only portfolios of indices show elliptical dependence?

Elliptical distributions imply an asymmetric relationship between variables such as financial returns of different assets. I'm guessing this is mainly due to skewness, although I might be wrong and ...
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### Can I build an efficient frontier using matrix algebra?

If i have a vector of expected returns $A$, a covariance matrix $C$ and a vector of the corresponding weights $W$ for each investment, is it possible to generate the efficient frontier with vector ...
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### Optimizing Portfolio Return by Targeting Variance

I understand Markowitz and targeting returns to minimize our variance. I know this optimization problem well and its constraints. However when the reverse scenario is to be considered I get very ...
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### Option Based Portfolio Insurance OPBI Simulation Excel

I want to simulate an example of OBPI in Excel. I can't find any example online with random figures that show how to simulate it. I tried to understand the appendix of Perold (1995): Dynamic ...
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### Density of a portfolio's returns is the weighted average of asset distributions?

The expected return of a portfolio can be formulated as a weighted average of the constituent assets' returns: $$r_p = w_1 r_1 + w_2 r_2 + \dots + w_N r_N + \epsilon$$ Does it also follow that the ...
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### How to compute portfolio returns when constructing a dollar-neutral portfolio

I am trying to wrap my head around this statement: dollar-neutral portfolios are built: dollar amounts of both long and short positions are equal. Furthermore, it is also true at the stock level: ...
61 views

### Finding a PDE for an option $V(t,r(t),S(t))$

I have 2 approaches in my mind for finding a pde of an option that depends both on the short rate as well as the stock price- $V(t,r(t),S(t)$. Are these equivalent? Find a hedging portfolio by ...
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### Is there a clear mathematical statement of what problem Hierarchical Risk Parity is solving?

Prado's paper is really just an algorithm for solving some inverse problem. Has anyone seen a clear statement of that inverse problem? Or do you know how to write it simply? The first step is just a ...
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### Annualised returns and volatility for 3 month data

I have a portofolio with 30 indexes and I want to calculate the annulised returns and volatility because I want to compare it with another portofolio with different number of indexes (but same time ...
54 views

### Global portfolio alpha

How does one compute the alpha of a global portfolio. Let's say we are using the Fama French 3 factor model and we have a portfolio of 50% US stocks and 50% German stocks. Should the regression be ...
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### Efficient portfolio standard deviation

Is annualized/ or average monthly standard deviation applied on the x-axis of efficient portfolio graph? Assuming expected annualized portfolio return is applied on the y-axis. thanks for your help!
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### How to build a portfolio following the Smart beta process by dividend? [closed]

I'm having trouble finding the method to track smart beta dividend management. I have an Excel file which contains the prices and the dividends of certain companies, and I want to build a portfolio ...
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### Assessing transaction costs of different portfolio strategies

I am trying to evaluate different dynamic allocation strategies based on the same stocks' universe according to their transaction costs. I was thinking to simply compute it as some sort of turnover ...
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### What’s the best Backtest Software/method? [closed]

I have a CSV which looks like this. Ticker | Buy Date | Sell date AAPL | 2018-01-03 | 2019-03-30 TSLA | 2019-03-01| 2019-04-05 What’s the best way to backtest this CSV performance given that ...
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### How does negative performance of a portfolio constituent affect its weight?

This is an easy question, I hope. Suppose we have a swap A with a long position, which, originally, has a weight of 30%. Over time, it has a positive performance of 3%, meaning we have a multiplier ...
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### Univariate Portfolio Analysis

We want to form 10 portfolios based on the level of VAR (99%) for equity data over a 30 year period. Portfolio 1 is the portfolio of stocks with the lowest value-at-risk and Portfolio 10 is the ...
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### Option pricing PDE Black Scholes one-factor Hull-White (or Vasicek) model

I am trying to find the option pricing PDE of the Black Scholes one-factor Hull-White (or Vasicek) model using a self-financing portfolio strategy. The system is as following \begin{equation*} \begin{...
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### Equity risk factors with daily rebalancing

I am building some well known equity factors on the S&P for research purposes. It means those are going to be used for general evaluation purposes but do not need to be replicable. Would it be a ...
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### Variance of the risk systematic component in Fama and French Three Factor Model

in my assignment i have to compute the variance of the risk systematic component in the Fama and French Three Factor Model. Does anyone know the formula or how to compute it? Thank you
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### Beta of sum or sum of betas

When interested in the beta of a portfolio, I see people make a weighted sum of the portfolio components' betas. Intuitively, I would have calculated the beta of the portfolio based on its aggregate ...
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### CVaR portfolio optimization with risk aversion parameter

I'm trying to implement the Rockafellar's function described in this paper http://past.rinfinance.com/agenda/2009/yollin_slides.pdf with a risk aversion parameter for my thesis. The function to ...
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### Why does Merton's fraction give unintuitive quantities using real world data?

The solution to Merton's portfolio problem suggests that an investor invest $\frac{\mu - r}{\sigma^2 \gamma}$ percent of their wealth in the stock market, where $\mu$ is the rate of return of the ...
30 views

### Time and asset weighted rate of return of a portfolio

If I have a portfolio with 3 initial assets on day 1 (say, stock 1 with beginning market value of \$100, stock 2 \$150 and stock 3 \$175) and after 10 days the stock 2 is sold for \$200, how can I ...
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### R - Portfolio construction based on own calculations, with rebalancing of components

I have used random forest in R to get probabilities for stocks being in a certain class. With those probabilities i would like to construct portfolios containing the 5 stocks with the highest ...
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### Understanding what is 'special' about the security market line

I am trying to get my head around the CAPM model and all the intricacies of portfolio management. I have written some code to help me visualise what happens to the risk-return characteristics of my ...
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### Is it possible to construct a hedge that matches value Delta Gamma and Vega?

Given a strike price, current price, risk free rate, dividend yield and volatility, I have been asked to calculate: - a hedge which matches the value Delta and Gamma - a hedge which matches the value ...
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### Variance/VaR calculation for a Portfolio

I'm considering a portfolio of multiple stocks (>2), and calculating their Standard Deviation/Variance and VaR for the portfolio. My question is about the below two ways to calculating them Consider ...
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### How to Calculate Discrete Currency Returns for Short Positions

I need to calculate currency returns for 1) short selling the currency and 2) going long in the currency. When going long, the currency is sold at Forward price $F_t$ and bought at spot price $S_{t+1}$...
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### What does “invest in portfolio volatility” mean?

In this paper, Barnea, Amir, Henrik Cronqvist, and Stephan Siegel. "Nature or nurture: What determines investor behavior?." Journal of Financial Economics 98.3 (2010): 583-604. it is mentioned ...
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### How to compute a portfolio value?

I am learning fundamentals of option market and ran into an example I do not understand : Let's assume I have a portfolio of 3 shares priced \$22, and a European call option to buy a share for \$21 ...
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### portfolio volatility over time

When estimating portfolio vol. with: $\sigma = \sqrt{w^T \cdot cov \cdot w}$ How does the sample length of returns affect $\sigma$? Is it possible to exponentially weight something to give more ...