Questions tagged [pricing]

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1answer
107 views

Is there an asset pricing model that actually works? Can you point me to research that test APMs?

As far as I know there is no APM that is able to explain all stock market anomalies. However, my search for papers empirically test a set of widely accepted APMs was not very successful. I would like ...
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1answer
76 views

Fair Strike for Variance Swap with no Skew in IV Surface

I am reading through Derman's 1999 research notes, "More than you ever wanted to know about Volatility Swaps." In equation B4 of Appendix B, the author takes the Taylor Series of the variance swap ...
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1answer
73 views

What discount rates should I use to price a municipal bond with unknown market price?

I have a payoff structure but I do not know the price of the bond. The bond is municipal. What discount rates should I take for each period in order to calculate its fair price?
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1answer
56 views

How to model the maturity term of non maturing deposit accounts

My client (bank) currently follows a naive method to model the maturity term of chequing accounts. We need to model the maturity to correctly calculate the FTP pricing of these chequing accounts. The ...
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0answers
20 views

Implying a required rate of return on an option from the required rate of return on the underlying

Is it possible to imply a required rate of return on an option from a required rate of return on the underlying? For example, given a known cost of equity, can you calculate the required rate of ...
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0answers
39 views

Pricing Equity Swaptions

Consider a swaption to enter into a standard equity swap as a fixed-rate payer, equity receiver, in which the notional principal is fixed. If the strike is K. the underlying swap starts at time 0=n ...
3
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1answer
218 views

Pricing a callable bond

I have read the Lehman Brother's paper on OAS which I mostly understand, they outline how to find the OAS for a callable bond of which the formula is effectively (ignoring refinancing costs): Market ...
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1answer
43 views

Why would a lower stock price leads to higher value of a call option?

Currently I am reading Basic Black Scholes: Option Pricing and Trading by Timothy Falcon Crack. At page $47,$ the author mentions the following. Higher interest rates decrease the present value of ...
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1answer
22 views

Do not understand 'If an option position includes short American-style options, then the payoff-diagram may be misleading'

Currently I am reading Basic Black Scholes: Option Pricing and Trading by Timothy Falcon Crack. At page $42,$ the author mentions the following. If an option position includes short American-style ...
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0answers
17 views

CDS ISDA Pricing (usage of accrued in calibration)

I am looking to understand the ISDA CDS Pricing Model for a 1Y "Buy Protection" CDS with Coupon = Quoted Spread = 100bp. Numbers are from Bloomberg. Cash-Flow Matrix ...
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1answer
148 views

VXX Put pricing

Last week at Friday's close, the Dec 14 37.5 Put options were selling for \$.68 with VXX at \$40.29. This week at Friday's close, the Dec 21 37.5 Put options were selling for \$.38 with VXX at \$40.50....
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1answer
109 views

What happened to future price if rates become negative?

Imagine the spot price of a non deliverable and not paying dividend asset is 100\$. With positive rate, the theoretical formula $F = S \cdot e^{rT}$ give us a future price higher, let's say 105. If ...
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1answer
240 views

What is the industry standard pricing model for CME-traded Eurodollar future (American) options?

The CME-traded Eurodollar futures option is an American option. What is the industry standard pricing model for this product? Does the industry practice to treat CME-traded Eurodollar futures ...
3
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1answer
462 views

Pricing interest rate swap in Ho Lee model

In Ho Lee model, assuming risk neutral probability is not exactly 0.5, would a change in the volatility of short-term rate affect the price of an interest rate swap? My intuition tells me no as ...
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2answers
84 views

Valuation of Total return swaps (TRS)

I have seen a TRS being valued which has an index as underlying on the asset side. It also has a coupon rate associated with it. Asset leg is calculated by taking ...
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0answers
41 views

New/ relevant ways to retrieve intraday stock pricing

I am trying my best to find cheap/ free ways to retrieve and store intraday stock prices - both historically and going forward. Many of the ways I find seem to be outdated and no longer exist. For ...
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2answers
324 views

Floating rate note value approximation

I was hoping somebody can assist me with a query. Would it be a valid approach to revalue a frn with a discount margin from a comparable bond as par minus the difference between the quoted margin and ...
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1answer
49 views

Transactional costs for shipping in % based on futures market price

Real case: Imagine I want to move an oil from one terminal to another. I have about 20 +/- tanker companies, but all of them have max capacity on their top deadweight (DWCC) vessel about ...
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0answers
53 views

How to price, hedge ESG-dependent products?

I read with interest news about Netherlands bank trading several novel products in which a counterparty pays floating cash flows linked to the counterparty's ESG (environment, social, governance) ...
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1answer
334 views

Exposure calculation of a re-coupon swap

How to calculate the exposure of a recoupon swap (when the MTM of an i.r. swap is settled and the fixed rate is reset to the prevailing swap rate for the residual maturity). It's used to reduce the ...
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1answer
331 views

Basic Replication of European Call Option

I am looking at the very basics of replicating an option with a portfolio of risky and risk free assets. As such we can define a portfolio of $x$ no. of shares, $y$ bonds & $z$ options at time $(T)...
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2answers
5k views

How to derive Black's formula for the valuation of an option on a future?

I've got a question about 1976 Black Model and Bachelier model. I know that a geometric brownian motion in the P measure $dS_{t}=\mu S_{t}dt+\sigma S_{t} dW_{t}^{P}$ for a stock price $S_{t}$ leads (...
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2answers
162 views

Efficient market hypothesis vs random walk

I am having trouble to understand the distinction between the EMH and random walks. If I understand correctly, the EMH states that all available information is incorporated into prices, which ...
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1answer
77 views

Zero-coupon bond pricing equation derivation

I'm trying to understand how in Chawla's paper that I've linked below, how he obtains equation (2.5) for the zero coupon bond pricing equation? The equation is: $\frac{\partial B}{\partial t} + \...
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1answer
58 views

Interest rate equation from bond price?

If a zero coupon bond price at time $t$, with maturity $T$ ($t<T$), is denoted by $B(t;T) = B(T;T) e^{(-\int_{t}^{T} r(s) ds)}$ where $r(t)$ is a known interest rate. How does this transform ...
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1answer
69 views

Increase short positions in futures on oil

In this video on severe contango the author says that if the spot price is way under the futures price, a lot of people will buy oil on spot price and enter a short position. Then he says : ...it's ...
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1answer
50 views

Can someone explain to me the intuition behind the discount factor for this simple payoff? [closed]

Let's say you enter into a contract today in which in time t, you receive the difference between the underlying stock price and 100. Denote the stock price as S. Why is today's value of such a ...
2
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1answer
168 views

ETF Market Making

I understand market makers of ETFs earn a bid-ask spread (buying low from investors and selling high in the market). But how exactly do they determine when's the right time to buy, and at what price? ...
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0answers
40 views

CDS pricing using intensity models incorporating liquidity

I want to price a CDS using an intensity based model, but I want to account for liquidity as well. General model: The default time $\tau$ is the first jump time of a cox process, and the survival ...
2
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1answer
108 views

FX Futures pricing formula

I'm reading Paul Wilmott's Introduces Quantitative Finance and stuck a bit with formula $F = S(t)e^{(r-r_f)(T-t)}$ for FX futures pricing. I don't get how to incorporate $r_f$ into the formula, could ...
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0answers
25 views

is there a specific design pattern in C# to model a yield curve into the NS model?

I successfully managed to have a nice NS model to a yield curve I am studying using R, while I am still beginner in C# I wonder if there is a specific design pattern I should follow in order to put ...
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0answers
75 views

Pricing eurodollar futures

How are Eurodollar futures priced in practice? What I already know: The implied 3 Months rate by the futures is 100-price, since it matches the payoff. Using daily LIBOR rates, one should be able to ...
2
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1answer
112 views

Overlapping vs Non-overlapping returns

Suppose I want to estimate the following regression: $R_t=\alpha + \beta X_{t-1} +\epsilon_t$. Where I use asset returns as the dependent variable. Both overlapping as well as non-overlapping returns ...
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1answer
90 views

Problem at deriving Bachelier formula with interest rates

In the Bachelier model, I have difficulties with a certain step. I want to figure out the distribution of $S_T$, which is the price process in the Bachelier model. So far I could state that ($\mathbb{...
4
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1answer
86 views

Equivalence of Put Pricing Formulas

I have to show that: \begin{equation} P_{t,T}(K)=e^{-r(T-t)} \int_0^{\infty}\left(K-S\right)^+ q_T^S(S)dS \end{equation} is equivalent to: \begin{equation} P_{t,T}(K)=e^{-r(T-t)}\int_{-\infty}^{...
3
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1answer
98 views

Black's Approximation - Discrete dividend for Put Options

I am currently trying to price and option chain for dividend paying stocks (american style exercise). I am able to calculate the Net Present Value (NPV) of dividends until maturity and then apply ...
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1answer
86 views

Difference between modelValue from HestonModelHelper and NPV() from VanillaOption

I am trying to calibrate an Heston model and price vanilla option using Quantlib 1.15 and Python 2.7. I use the following code ...
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0answers
111 views

A crash course in pricing

I need to refresh all the pricing theory. Is there anything like a crash course with practical and intuitive explanations? I will provide any further information. I am a mathematical engineer. I am ...
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1answer
86 views

Getting rate from a share's given futures price, with known dividend information

Question was answered by @Ezy - thanks! This seems to be a basic question, but mysteriously unsolvable as far as I can see. It concerns calculating the interest rate from a given stock futures ...
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2answers
96 views

CDS, default probability and bond price

When we calculate the implied default probabilities from CDS, can we use that information to price bonds? I am getting familiar with Fixed Income. I saw textbooks using implied default probabilities ...
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0answers
22 views

Pricing a transfer option for oil

Need some input in how to attack this problem. Given are 8 timeseries: UK Oil price, Delivery Quarter 1 2020 UK Oil price, Delivery Quarter 2 2020 UK Oil price, Delivery Quarter 3 2020 UK Oil price, ...
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1answer
107 views

pricing deliverable vs non-deliverable fx forwards

I am trying to link these two questions together Pricing a regular FX forward This is a contract (say USD vs JPY) where you exchange 2 currencies at maturity at a pre-determined rate, while no ...
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1answer
243 views

How to quantify the coupon effect?

I'm reading Moorad Choudhry's book "Advanced Fixed Income Analysis" The first chapter briefly touches on the coupon effect which I understand from other sources is the effect of pricing an annuity (...
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0answers
18 views

How to calculate/estimate CLV for our odd subscription-based business model [closed]

I'm working on a school project where I and other group members come up with a business idea and write a paper containing all necessary information about the business, like the business model, revenue ...
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1answer
161 views

Pricing in the Heston Model

The dynamics of the Heston Model is \begin{align*} \frac{dS}{S} & = \lambda \sqrt{\nu} d W^S \\[0.5em] d \nu & = k (1- \nu )dt + \epsilon \sqrt{\nu} dW^\sigma \end{align*} where $\lambda$...
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2answers
221 views

Application of Itô's lemma - Forward process

How would be applied the itô's lemma in the following equation: And we know that:
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1answer
4k views

Z-Spread vs Discount Margin

I'm comparing two types of discounting: Z-Spread and Discount Margin. Reading the article by O'Kane Credit Spread Explained I found Z-Spread is used for fixed rate notes meanwhile Discount Margin, ...
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1answer
157 views

Bond discounting conventions

during the preparation for my thesis, I've come across some strange discrepancies between literature and the information I've been taught. It comes down to the proper way of discounting cash-flows of ...
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0answers
53 views

Preferred Stock pricing model

I am trying to build a model to price a preferred stock. I want to model the dividends as random payments. I can't find any papers online on the subject. Does anyone have a reference for me?
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2answers
88 views

How to derive the prices of downstream products from raw commodity prices?

I am looking for a simple way to estimate price time series of downstream products based on price of the main "raw" commodity. For example, would like to estimate a price for wheat flour based on ...