# Questions tagged [programming]

For questions about programming languages, implementation, and packages in quantitative finance. Note: question must be specific to quantitative finance and must necessitate knowledge of quantitative finance in order to be on topic.

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22k views

### How to derive the implied probability distribution from B-S volatilities?

The general problem I have is visualization of the implied distribution of returns of a currency pair. I usually use QQplots for historical returns, so for example versus the normal distribution: ...
87k views

### What programming languages are most commonly used in quantitative finance?

What programming languages are the most common in quantitative finance, and why are these languages used? Note: I do not mean, what languages are used to develop the accounting system at a hedge fund:...
4k views

### Understanding Yang-Zhang Volatility Estimator

I am using TTR in R and I am trying to understand the Yang Zhang volatility estimator (without drift). The following equations seem to imply a single value:  \sigma = \sqrt{{\sigma_o^2}+k\sigma_c^2+...
985 views

### Obtaining risk-neutral probability from option prices

Suppose I have the following data (for the current stock and option prices of the Bank of America) Strike Last IV Probability 4 8 5.43 0.5813566 0.0000000 7 11 2.45 0.2868052 ...
5k views

### What is an efficient method to find implied volatility?

I have a code that finds the implied volatility using the Newton-Raphson method. I set the number of trial to 1000 but sometimes it fails to converge and doesn't find the result. Is there a better ...
14k views

### What tools exist for order book analysis and visualization?

What tools exist for order book analysis and visualization? In particular, if one wanted to examine a limit order book and understand how it changes throughout the day where would you turn for ...
50k views

### How to fit ARMA+GARCH Model In R?

I am currently working on ARMA+GARCH model using R. I am looking out for example which explain step by step explanation for fitting this model in R. I have time series which is stationary and I am ...
3k views

### Tools in R for estimating time-varying copulas?

Are there libraries in R for estimating time-varying joint distributions via copulas? Hedibert Lopes has an excellent paper on the topic here. I know there is an existing packaged called copula but ...
17k views

### GARCH model and prediction

I have a question about the prediction of volatility and returns of a time series. Basically it is a question about predict in the ...
7k views

### Is there an all Java options-pricing library (preferably open source) besides jquantlib?

I am looking for an all-java implementation of black scholes, preferably open source. I found jquantlib and quantlib (C++). Any other recommendations? The jquantlib site seems to be down. I'd prefer ...
28k views

### How to interpret results of Johansen Test?

I have two time-series a & b. The objective is to find out whether two series are cointegrated or not. I am using Johansen Test in R to find this out. I am using urca package of R. Here is the ...
20k views

### Forecasting using rugarch package

I want to do one step ahead in-sample forecasts. My data can be found here. This is just a data frame with the date as the rownames. I specify my model and do the fit and show the plots with ...
995 views

### Is there a non-recursive way of calculating the exponential moving average?

I want to calculate the exponential moving average for many stocks in a large investable universe. To do this, I've seen the following formula: Because it references the previous day's exponential ...
3k views

### What .NET library can I use to solve optimization problems?

I'm working with C# and I start being bored writing optimization algorithm. Do you know any free library containing this sort of algorithms? In particular I'm currently working with Semidefit ...
2k views

### Use QuantLib Python to calculate Swap DV01

I would want to use QuantLib Python to calculate DV01 of an interest rate swap. Initially I was thinking of calculating the fixed leg DV01 and floating leg DV01 separately, then add both legs DV01 ...
263 views

### Finite Difference method in Matlab for SABR volatility model fails to provide correct option values

Currently, I'm trying to implement a Finite Difference (FD) method in Matlab for my thesis (Quantitative Finance). I implemented the FD method for Black-Scholes already and got correct results. ...
2k views

### Excel YIELD function equivalent in python Quantlib

I am struggling to get an equivalent of Excel's YIELD function using Quantlib in python. As you can see from the Excel documentation on YIELD here, only a few parameters are needed compared to this ...
501 views

### Efficient frontier doesn't look good

Hi I'm trying to draw an efficient frontier. Below is what I used. returns parameter consists of 9 column returns of portfolio. I selected 10,000 portfolios and this is how my efficient frontier ...
28k views

### Except Zipline, are there any other Pythonic algorithmic trading library I can choose?

Except Zipline, are there any other Pythonic algorithmic trading library I can choose? Especially, for backtesting?
26k views

### Is R being replaced by Python at quant desks?

I know the title sounds a little extreme but I wonder whether R is phased out by a lot of quant desks at sell side banks as well as hedge funds in favor of Python. I get the impression that with ...
21k views

### Switching from C++ to R - limitations/applications

I've only recently begun exploring and learning R (especially since Dirk recommended RStudio and a lot of people in here speak highly of R). I'm rather C(++) oriented, so it got me thinking - what are ...
50k views

### Why is C++ still a very popular language in quantitative finance? [closed]

I had to ask this question after reading the answers to What programming languages are most commonly used in quantitative finance? I understand that C++ programs can be optimized pretty well and are ...
39k views

### Is there any thing out there as a substitute for KDB?

thanks a lot for your discussions on the original post. following your suggestions, let me re-phrase a bit : kdb is known for its efficiency, and such efficiency comes at a terrible price. However, ...
18k views

### What is the reference python library for portfolio optimization?

Does anyone know of a python library/source that is able to calculate the traditional mean-variance portfolio? To press my luck, any resources where the library/source also contains functions such as ...
30k views

### Is the Interactive Brokers API suitable for hft?

By HFT here I mean anything with holding period less than 5 to 10 minutes. Any empirical/anecdotal evidence of using it successfully on even higher frequencies?
19k views

### Correctly applying GARCH in Python

Problem: Correct usage of GARCH(1,1) Aim of research: Forecasting volatility/variance. Tools used: Python Instrument: SPX (specifically adjusted close prices) Reference material: On Estimation of ...
6k views

### How good is managed code for algo trading?

I am currently working in a firm that does algo trading. We do all of our stuff in Java. And we do make money out of it. We have debates all the time whether we would have made more money with native ...
12k views

### What is a good broker for HFT?

Currently I trade trough IB. I run my HFT strategies (100 roundtrips per hour) but I think that latency is killing me and my profits are shrinking. I need the fastest possible brokers out there which ...
8k views

### Implementing data-structures in a Limit order book

I'm working on implementing a 'LOB' and I'm being very careful about choosing my data-structures so as to maximize performance. Using F# as an example, I need to consider a List versus Array for ...
11k views

### Option trading API other than Interactive Brokers

I'm looking for an options broker that provides an execution API. I'd like to ideally test on a papertrading version of it before connecting to a real execution engine. I know IB offers that, but they ...
6k views

### Hidden Markov Model & Its Application

I have started reading about HMM it gives an intuitive idea about what HMM is all about. I am looking out for example where its applied to Equity model using R / Excel. The material which I read so ...
12k views

### Which brokers offer a .NET stock trading API?

I'm trying to make up my mind and choose a broker, however much of my choice depends on the trading API offered. I'm definitely not interested in FIX solutions and I'd very much like a .NET ...
10k views

### What is the best live options data API?

What is the best/cheapest service to get real-time (as real-time as you can get) on stock options? I'm looking for the fastest update on the ENTIRE market, with a few stocks prioritized, so I need ...
2k views

### Automated 10-K XBRL data grab using the SEC file structure

I would like to write a program that takes as input a list of CIK/year/quarter entries. The program should iterate through the list and, for each entry, grab XBRL financial data from the SEC website ...
1k views

### Use QuantLib Python to calculate roll-down of a swap

I would want to use QuantLib Python to calculate 6-month roll-down of a 5-year swap. I believe that the calculation I need to do is as follows: $Rolldown=r_{0,5Y}-r_{0,4.5Y}$ Where $r_{0,5Y}$ is ...
10k views

### R code for Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process

Can any one help me with some R code to run Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process?
2k views

### What approaches are there to order handling in automated trading?

I am currently developing a commercial automated trading program in which users can write their own proprietary code and develop strategies, like in NinjaTrader, MetaTrader etc. Right now I am working ...
2k views

### Reference on Markov chain Monte Carlo method for option pricing?

I have to implement option pricing in c++ using Markov chain Monte Carlo. Is there some paper which describes this in detail so that I can learn from there and implement?
4k views

### Quantmod: what's the difference between ROC(Cl(SPY)) and ClCl(SPY)

I feel like I'm missing something fundamental here, but I can't shake the feeling that these two series should be equivalent. /edit: there is also dailyReturn(Cl(SPY)). I've seen all 3 of these ...
12k views

### The future language of quant programming? [closed]

Im just about to begin the programming aspect of my education towards being a Quant. I know what languages are currently being used and how popular they are. However, I have several good friends ...
13k views

### how do I loop through all the stocks with quantmod and ttr?

I just started with quantmod package. If I want to select stocks based on their recent performance, then I need to loop through all the stocks in, say, NYSE. So I need: get all the stock symbols ...
6k views

### How can I estimate the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck paramters of some mean reverting data that I have on R?

I have mean reverting data (Difference of 2 stock prices, that I want to do pairs trading on). I want to simulate my own mean reverting data as similar as possible to the real data that I have. The ...
2k views

### Simulating Returns

I'll start this off with a rather broad question: I am trying to simulate returns of a large number of assets within a portfolio of different classes - equity and fixed income in a first step, say 100 ...
5k views

### Fastest news feed APIs targeting high frequency trading?

The Dow Jones elementized news feed API seems to stand out but are there any other machine readable news feeds out there that provide very low latencies that high frequency operations may peruse? I am ...
2k views

### Simple QuantLib Bond Math

I am new to QuantLib and am trying to get it to replicate some simple bond math. Suppose we have a 5-year bond with annual coupon payments of \$5 and face value of \$100, and interest rate of 4%. ...
4k views

### Is there a charting API which allows to replicate Bloomberg chart tool features?

I believe that most of us will agree that being able to compute values is only part of our job, as we would also like to be able to display them nicely in order to better understand or help co-workers/...
5k views

### GJR-GARCH Model In R

Any idea how to estimate GJR-GARCH models in R? Is there any particular library like fGarch that supports such models?
839 views

### QuantLib Python price same swap on different evaluation dates

I want to use QuantLib Python to price a swap at 2 different evaluation dates during the life time of the swap. The following is what I've tried so far: ...