# Questions tagged [return]

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Using total return calculations is critical in developing security selection models. The standard way to measure total return is to develop a series of price-adjusted data. Investopedia describes the ...
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### Is Arithmetic Return Bias Basis of Low Vol Anomaly?

An observation in capital markets is that the connection between return and risk (measured as volatility) is not that straightforward (at least not as modern portfolio theory assumes). One interesting ...
402 views

### local price return and volume relationship

I wanted to see how the stock price and volume relationship is locally. So I tried ranking both the daily return (at day t) and volume (at day t) base on a 30 day rolling window with historical daily ...
14k views

### Square root of time

I am writing about VaR and I am wondering about the following: We can scale the VaR to different time horizons by using the square root of time, which means, that the volatility is adjusted by square ...
26k views

### How to calculate equally weighted market portfolio

There's two studies that test the same thing in different markets (i.e. they apply the identical methodology). They state: 1) "$R_{mt}$ is the equally weighted average stock return in the dual-listed ...
2k views

### Valuing Total Return Swaps

In my quest for simulated data, I am trying to generate prices for Total Return Swaps by calculating the NPVs of the fixed and floating leg. My problem: Given the fixed leg, how do I set the spread on ...
219 views

### Transform Fama French Returns to Euro

I constructed a global portfolio and calculate it's daily return in Euro. Now i want to do the regression with the Fama-French daily factor-returns (HML, SMB). However, these returns can only be ...
3k views

### Calculating Geometric mean

I need to annualize daily returns for about 120 firms for over a period of 10 years. I chose to calculate the geometric return because 1) it is the actual return 2) to avoid the asymmetric effect of ...
289 views

### Discrepancy between total shareholder return and return calculated using adjusted share price?

I'm trying to understand a difference I'm seeing between the return I calculate using adjusted close price and the total shareholder return with dividends reinvested (TSR) I get from Bloomberg / this ...
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2k views

### convert three months interbank rate into monthly rate

I have a time series of the three month interbank rate each month and I suppose that the rate is has yearly frequency. I need these interbank rates to be on a monthly basis because I want to us these ...
61 views

### Currency Hedged Excess Return

In the famous article "Global portfolio optimisation" of Black and Litterman, the authors defined the excess return on currency-hedged assets as the following :  E_t = 100 \frac{P_{t+1}X_t}{P_tX_{...
23 views

### Source for derivation of acquisition price for given IRR and cash flows

Does anyone know a quotable source - book/academic or practitioner's paper - that derives the acquisiton price for a target firm when the buyer's desired IRR and all cash flows over time of the target ...
38 views

### normalized 15-min absolute returns

I was reading an article today and I came across a new expression: "normalized 15-min absolute returns". I know what returns mean but I don't have any idea how I can normalize them ( I am not sure if ...
918 views

### How to calculate monthly Return from a Momentum Strategy with overlapping Holdingperiods?

I replicate a Momentum Strategy from Rey and Schmid (2007) "Feasible momentum strategies" based on the idea from Jegadeesh and Titman (1993). I only buy the single stock with the highest past return ...
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### What is the expected rate of return from paying 1 today for a 50/50 bet receiving either 2 in year 1 or 0.5 in year 2? [closed]

What do you think is the correct way to calculate expected return for this example? I think Method4 below is correct. Method1 35.4% = AVERAGE(1.0, 0.5^(1/2)-1) Incorrect, but some will argue that ...
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### Generalized method of moments concept in CAPM testing

In the course of my master thesis I’ve come across a paper by Carr and Wu (2009) where the authors evaluate whether returns on variance swaps can be explained by the simple CAPM. (really only market ...
126 views

### Intrepreting the Capital Market Line plot

I am looking at plots of the Security Market (SML) line and Capital market line (CML). The X axis is the beta for the SML and Standard deviation for CML; the y axis is labeled with excess return. ...
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### Is my data fittet to be significant?

I am new to this forum and hope for some help. I have a dataset of returns. I cannot tell where these come from, but let's assume they come from a trading algorithm of stock prices. The returns are ...
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### Private Equity Fund Return (IRR)

Can anyone guide me that how to calculate IRR for Private Equity Fund. I have the following data. Capital Call with dates Management Fees with dates I used excel formula of XIRR, but I found that ...