Questions tagged [returns]

The asset rate of returns is the profit on a particular investment; it includes any change in the asset value, interest, commission or dividends and so, all other cash-flows which an investors receive or pays due to the investment.

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114 views

How to calculate the BHAR (Buy-and-Hold Abnormal Returns)?

I am doing my research related to IPOs long term performance. For the BHAR formula, I just want to clarify the formula is that always compare with the first trading day price, or is compared with last ...
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Trailing stop (long-only) based on annualized volatilty

I am wondering if there is a rule-of-thumb for setting a trailing stop (fixed percent) if you know the annualized volatity. I calculate volatility from daily close price using the simple returns, $...
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returns, standard deviation and mean absolute deviation

I'm trying to understand the relationships between return, standard deviation and mean absolute deviation. I saw someone mention: $daily return * 16 \approx annualized volatility$ $weekly return * 7.2 ...
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40 views

how to calculate YTD return including the paid dividends

I am looking for a way to compute YTD return and I found this question (calculate YTD return / find first available datapoint of a year in python), however, it seems that it does not include the paid ...
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53 views

Calculation of Fama-French risk factors

Background: I am conducting some research on equity returns across Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The analysis is seen from a Danish investor’s point of view, and therefore I have currency ...
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73 views

CURRENCY ADJUSTED RETURNS: How to adjust stock returns in foreign currency (e.g., EUR) to local currency (USD)?

I have collected monthly stock returns (in %) denominated in EUR and exchange rate EUR/USD. I am trying to adjust the monthly stock returns denominated in EUR to monthly stock returns denominated in ...
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What is higher order moment of firms?

Today I read a sentence that "in US, expected market excess returns can be predicted using average higher order moments of all firms". When I read further, "higher order moments" ...
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41 views

What is this return contribution methodology called (Multi-Period Contribution)

In reviewing the recently answered, below question Multi-Period Contribution I think the top answer (calculating weights at the end of each period) results in a method which does allow for multi-...
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How to arrive at excess real log return? (Conflicting answers on the web)

I am finding many conflicting takes on how to arrive at the excess real return. My understanding is we take log nominal return - log inflation to find real log return. Then we take log nominal risk ...
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What details must be considered when assessing an asset’s inflation beta?

The inflation beta of an asset is described as: $$ r_{i,t}-r_f = \alpha_i + \beta_\pi^i \epsilon_{\pi, t} + u_{i,t} $$ For shorthand, I will use “return” to mean excess return. In academic literature ...
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133 views

Inflation β = 1 meaning a “perfect inflation hedge?”

I read somewhere (Ang, Brière, Signori: Inflation and Individual Equities, 2012) that in a given period if the inflation rate rises by 1% point (say from 1% to 2%), and the return of Asset A rises ...
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Examining the dependence of the fractional difference parameter in ARFIMA(0,d,0) vs bar size for Realized Volatility

Realized volatility is a long-memory process and so I fitted an ARFIMA(0,d,0) to log(RV15) where RV15 is realized volatility calculated from 15-min bars. I proceeded to examine how changing the bar ...
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What's the best proxy for a stock contribution to the portfolio returns?

I have a table of the weights of stocks in my portfolio for various periods and another with the returns that those stocks had for the same periods. If I sum the product between the weights and the ...
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What is a cumulative return series?

I guess this is pretty easy but I cannot find a definition anywhere. I am trying to reproduce a paper and they say they use a cumulative return series at some point. Does anyone know exactly what this ...
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larger sample weights for larger absolute returns?

In section 4.6 of Advances in Financial Machine Learning, Lopez de Prado writes In the previous section we learned a method to bootstrap samples closer to IID. In this section we will introduce a ...
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Calculation of Long-Short-Portfolio returns for different holding periods

I have monthly stock returns I want to invest in according to my trading signals. Now I want to figure out the optimal holding period of the long-short-positions. (The same time for both positions). I ...
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Source for Intraday or High-frequency stock price data

I am in search for intraday (some observations per day would be fine) or high-frequency data for stock prices. I have for example 3.000 ISIN numbers of German companies and want to get the intraday/...
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37 views

Log Returns or Simple Returns for Portfolio Performance Analysis

Simple question but one thats stumping me slightly. I am doing a study analysing historical portfolio performance related to portfolios constructed with separate factors in mind. I realise simple ...
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51 views

Expected returns and Fama-French Factor Model

It is my understanding that for any given stock, the sample mean of historical returns is not a good proxy for the stock's expected return. In fact, the return on a stock needs to be estimated via ...
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31 views

Fama French: daily or weekly returns?

I am conducting a performance comparison analysis among sustainable and conventional mutual funds. I want to analyse the last 6 years and focus also on the subperiod of the COVID-19 crisis. I have ...
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482 views

What is better: A negatively skewed return or a positively skewed returns distribution?

I noticed that in certain literature, like in CFA level 1, the theory put forth is that someone should prefer positively skewed returns as mean > median > mode. But why is that? Based on a ...
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Why is the approximate entropy of (some) stock returns zero?

I downloaded some prices for TSLA and AMZN from yahoo finance to try and see if I could measure the entropy on a rolling basis with the intention being maybe returns have lower entropy (are more ...
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Predicting smoothed returns

Due to the extremly low ratio of signal to noise in financial data, predicting raw returns is very difficult. If we smooth out the price time series, say by an EWMA, and then calculate returns on this ...
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70 views

What about autocorrelation and heteroskedasticity in Fama French?

I am analysing ESG and conventional mutual funds. I decided to measure the extra performance of each category using the Fama French 4 factor model, but it seems to me that in previous literature they ...
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144 views

Are return time series ergodic?

It seems intuitive to me that return time series would be ergodic. Is there a test statistic that I can use to check this? Would this be affected by sampling rate? One way I can think of checking ...
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Term structure of Equity returns

What is the meaning of term structure of equity returns. I know what term structure of interest rates means, but somehow i cant seem to relate them. Also, how would we measure them? Also in this paper ...
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43 views

Proper way to measure portfolio returns

I have a peculiar trading strategy and I can't seem to be able to find a proper way to measure its performance. Background: The strategy consists of buying certain stocks and then selling them in ...
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Estimating distribution of rate of return

Let $f[t]$ be the price of a stock at time $t$. We can calculate the rolling rate of return of the stock in a window of length $n$ by computing: $$r[t] = \frac{f[t] - f[t-n]}{f[t-n]}$$ $r[t]$ is ...
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How to Calculate monthly excess returns from 3-Month Treasury Bill: Secondary Market Rate

I'm using portfoliovisualizer with their "dual momentum" function, I have selected out of market asset as cash, and left everything else as default - hopefully this link takes you straight ...
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How skewed are FX returns? Does this look like a plausible histogram of EURUSD?

I'm reading about volatility. I've charted the histogram of EURUSD and I am wondering if this looks plausible? What I've charted are the 1-hour percent change returns (not log returns). I've removed 0 ...
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1answer
141 views

Backshifting Price Timeseries with Memory Preservation

In Advances in Financial Machine Learning the author makes a case for fractionally differentiated price returns in chapter 5. The reason is to both maintain memory and to generate a stationary time ...
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43 views

Buy-and-hold raw and abnormal returns

This may seem like a silly question, but I have trouble understanding the concept. I am performing regressions where the dependent variables are raw buy-and-hold returns and abnormal buy-and-hold ...
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Novy-Marx Profitability "Excess" returns - What does Excess mean here?

I am reading Novy-Marx's paper titled "The other side of value: The gross profitability premium". Throughout the paper, he mentions excess returns in several tables, but I cannot find any ...
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Matching periodicity Fama-French Factors, Portfolio Return and Risk Free rate

I am trying to replicate certain aspects of the following paper: "Does the stock market fully value intangibles? Employee satisfaction and equity prices" - Alex Edmans (2011) for three ...
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Confusion regarding hedge calculation

this might not be the most advanced question, but hopefully this is the right community. Suppose that we have an asset with return $R_a$, a respective benchmark with return $R_b$ and the risk-free ...
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weekly returns and the daily returns scaled to weekly

I am new in this blog and first of all I want to apologise for my english. I have to calculate, for a university project, the weekly returns and daily scaled returns to weekly for few stocks For ...
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363 views

Log excess returns calculation

I need to calculate log excess returns. I'm given market level monthly total return index, price index and a risk-free rate (from Fama/French 3/5/etc. factors). I'm not sure whether I'm calculating ...
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Covariance Matrix for asset returns [closed]

Hey guys I'm pretty new here, not sure how to code my question so I'll include a picture reference instead. I'm a bit confused on how the standard deviation of F (commodity price) would affect the ...
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33 views

Scale price and returns

Through Bloomberg I have downloaded some data related to the Bloomberg Euro Aggregate Bond Index, however I think I am wrong. I was convinced to have taken the historical prices of the index (in ...
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Is Total Return data for mutual funds on Bloomberg adjusted for fees/expense ratio?

I'm comparing the performance of mutual funds using monthly returns data from Bloomberg. I use the Day to Day Total Returns (Gross Dividends) field represented in Excel by ...
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How to annualise hourly returns?

I have hourly open,high,low,close candles data for a particular asset. I wrote my own algo and some back testing code that replays the data from the past hourly candles to calculate the total return ...
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158 views

How to compute returns of a Pairs Trading Strategy with different holding periods?

I am currently working on a project where I am testing a Pairs Trading Strategy based on Cointegration. In this strategy I am considering to trade a couple of hundred stock pairs every day over a time ...
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144 views

How to calculate a Corporate Bond Transaction Price (Bond returns?)?

I am struggling with the concepts and variables of corporate bonds returns. Bai, Bali and Wen (2019) define monthly corporate bond returns as: Where where is transaction price, , is accrued ...
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What is the name of this concept/formula?

I stumbled on this not so complicated concept and couldn't figure out what it's called. I want to buy something that costs $M$ units of money, and have to pay it in $n$ months at a rate of $\frac M n$ ...
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172 views

Calculating returns from transactions

I have a collection of client transactions representing the trades of a single portfolio across multiple securities. What I'd like to do is the calculate the accurate ROI of each security and of the ...
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Compute 6 Month Returns using Monthly Returns data

I have data containing 6 months returns of a stock. ...
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1answer
173 views

T-statistics on monthly returns vs annualized monthly returns

eqI am very confused about a very basic question. This is probably more statistics than quantitative finance, but still, should be useful for this stackexchange board as well. Let's assume I have ...
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Bonds portfolio - total return

TRICKY QUESTION ON BOND PF RETURNS I am working on a bond portfolio, so for each line i have a monthly price change (equal weighted by the numebr of bonds in the portfolio this month) then the return ...
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858 views

How does one calculate carry-roll-down theoretically assuming expectations of short-term rates are realised

I am not asking for an explanation that is hugely quantitative, but rather one that is more intuitive. I am aware that there are different assumptions that one could take when it comes to carry-roll-...
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Return of a bond held to maturity and realised forward rates

Let's assume that forward rates are realised as part of a carry-roll-down scenario. The gross return of a bond under the realised forward assumption to maturity is: $\frac{c(1+f(2))(1+f(3))...(1+f(T))}...

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