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Questions tagged [returns]

The asset rate of returns is the profit on a particular investment; it includes any change in the asset value, interest, commission or dividends and so, all other cash-flows which an investors receive or pays due to the investment.

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How to apply derived beta to daily change?

I've taken three months of price return data for two instruments and calculated a $\beta$ between the two using the formula $\beta = \frac{Cov(x,y}{Var(y)}$ with the goal of estimating what the ...
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66 views

Should the sum of daily returns be close to monthly returns

I am calculating value-weighted returns with monthly dividends reinvested and for some reason when I sum the daily returns some are a little bit off with monthly returns. Is this normal?
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How to calculate the daily rate of return for an actively traded account

I have a spot currency exchange account where the base currency is USD and where I can deposit and/or withdraw money from the account in any currency at any point in time. I can also exchange any ...
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122 views

Cumulative Return on Futures

In my current backtesting, I am using log returns as a proxy for simple returns via the relationship $\ln(1 + r) \approx r$ for small enough r. This gives me wonderful properties like time additivity, ...
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1answer
83 views

Convert Geometric Direct Alpha PME to Arithmetic Excess IRR (PME Alpha / Implied Private Premium)

As a followup to this old question, Private Equity: Direct Alpha vs Excess IRR, I have a new one. In automating PME calculations, the Direct Alpha (DA) approach is computationally simpler and ...
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35 views

Efficient Frontier Graph

I'm writing some C code to create different portfolios using a few stocks that are given as inputs. I am having some trouble trying to find if these results are correct. My biggest hesitation is that ...
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1answer
132 views

What is the correct way to calculate the annualized returns from rolling windows starting from monthly returns?

What is the correct way to calculate the annualized returns in 5-year rolling estimation windows starting from monthly returns? Is it most correct to first annualize the returns (using the geometric ...
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62 views

Logic behind calculating a Carry Multiple associated with Startup Valuation [closed]

I'm reading a book called "The #1 Guide to Startup Valuation: How to value your startup in 12 easy steps" (p. 22-23) by Joachim Blazer. As one of the building blocks, namely "Return", the Carry ...
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66 views

Distribution of simple returns vs logreturns

I understand that stock prices are conditionally modeled using a log normal distribution by the relationship $ y_t/y_{t−1}∼logN(μ_{daily},σ^2_{daily})$ $y_t∼logN(log(y_{t-1})+μ_{daily},σ^2_{...
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Possible application of Polya's Urn on Portfolio's Investments?

I wanted to find some more information of this topic, but I found very little. I might be interested in optimizing a stock investment portfolio. Maybe I could use beta or some other common risk ...
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1answer
55 views

Return On a Spread

This is a beginner level question. I have a $spread = aluminium - 0.7*lead $ $s = a - 0.7*l$ I have two methods to calculate return on this spread: $ return = (s_t - s_{t-1})/(a_t + 0.7*l_t) $ ...
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124 views

Neural Networks for Estimation of Unmarked Private Asset Returns from Market Data

Let's assume it is March and my illiquid private assets portfolio is only 50% marked for 12/31, but I want to get the most accurate estimate of my final return for the quarter ended on 12/31. What is ...
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2answers
76 views

Finding Lead-Lag Relationship [duplicate]

Given two series of data, volatility and returns, is there a way (Excel) of finding which one is the leading factor and lagging factor? Thank you for your help.
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1answer
138 views

R: Calculating cumulative return of a portfolio

I've downloaded adjusted closing prices from Yahoo using the quantmod-package, and used that to create a portfolio consisting of 50% ...
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0answers
49 views

Calculate the True daily Time Weighted Return

I have an access database with records of securities in my portfolio as well as my trades for each security. My aim is to calculate the "Daily Time Weighted Return" then down the line, export it and ...
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1answer
31 views

Literature on return sensitivy in respect to: growth, risk and profitability

I am currently writing my master's thesis, wherein I am looking for supporting literature. Specifically, I wanted to know if there had been any research relating to how the: growth, risk and ...
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1answer
65 views

Calculate New Portfolio Weights Given Today's Returns

I'm looking for a formula to recalculate my portfolio's weights at the end of time $T$, given a vector of the asset weights at $T$ and a vector of returns at $T$. For example: ...
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29 views

General to specific approach to modelling

I am trying to find the relationship of stock indices across the world. This has been done by the literature, however, I am wondering about the methods chosen. I have decided to go with what I think ...
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2k views

How to convert Jensen's Alpha from monthly to quarterly observations

I am being puzzled while calculating jensen's alpha for single stocks. I have monthly returns data and have calculated alpha for each stock on a monthly basis (used 36-month rolling window for beta ...
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1answer
130 views

Rate of Return Required on Buying Stocks with Loan

A bank gives a loan $L$ for $m$ months and the monthly interest rate is $i$. The bank requires monthly installments - which I calculate is $I = \frac{L}{m} + Li$. I use this loan to buy stocks....
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32 views

Correct way to calculate overall CAGR of trades of different lengths?

Let's say you bought 5 stocks on the same day and they performed like this: Symbol Return CalDays BP/Day CAGR AAA 7.4% 42 17.6 86% BBB 5.1% 41 12.4 56% ...
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1answer
59 views

In search of nice (approx) function forms of the volatility of cumulative simple returns

Let's consider a period $t\in[0,T]$, and let the simple return over year $t$ ($1\le t\le T$) be $r_t$. Assume $r_t$ are iid normal. The cumualative simple return over the whole period $[0,T]$ is $$R_T=...
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4answers
266 views

How to calculate return on investment for an adjustment to a complex options position?

Say I currently hold a set of options positions with the same symbol/expiry that collectively have a net present value based on the estimated value at expiration of +10. I could also liquidate the ...
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1answer
99 views

How to calculate annualized simple returns and annualized simple standard deviation given historical daily data

I have daily log returns of my asset that run over several years and I would like to calculate a time series of the Rolling Sharpe Ratio. This Sharpe Ratio asks specifically for: Annualized simple ...
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1answer
105 views

Return Contribution for Annual Returns

I have a portfolio $p$ made up of a bunch of assets $i$ where the weights change slowly over time. The returns over each period $j$ composed of the weighted returns of the asset $r^j_p$ $$ r^j_p =...
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2answers
47 views

Short position returns with negative NAV

I am using data on the opening, change and closing of short positions, but I am interested in when the profit/losses are made. Hence, I calculated daily the value of the short position by taking the ...
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1answer
33 views

Differences Between Portfolio Daily Average Returns

I have a doubt about the average daily return for a 2 stock porfolio. I have the data of both stock returns over a 1511 day period. I used 2 approachs to calculate the average return. In the first one,...
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1answer
159 views

relationship between volatility and equity premium

I am working on the equity premium. Does anybody know one or two authors who address the relationship between volatility and equity premium? I.e. how does vola influence the equity premium? In ...
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1answer
44 views

When modelling ARCH/GARCH effects, do we use excess returns?

When modelling ARCH/GARCH effects, do we use excess returns? Is it common in the literature to use excess returns when modelling volatility as opposed to raw return data?
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1answer
63 views

What is, here, the relationship between “compound” and “arithmetic return” and “volatility”?

I'm trying to find the exact (ie, not an approximate) relation between the "Compound Return", "Arithmetic Return", and the "Annualised Volatility" as given the assumptions below, and from there the ...
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0answers
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Sample distribution of cross-sectional statistics of returns

Currently doing an application of VaR on sample of industry portfolios in the US. I have a matrix of $n$ industry portfolios with $m$ time-series observations. I calculate cross-sectionally (for each ...
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1answer
132 views

Are Kenneth French Research Returns log-Returns?

Does anyone know if Kenneth French's return data on his website is log returns?
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51 views

Market Invariant for Commodity Futures

In the same sense that Meucci describes "compounded returns" as the invariant for equities and "changes in yield-to-maturity" as the invariant for fixed-income, what is the invariant for a commodity ...
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1answer
135 views

Creating value weighted portfolio returns. How to handle missing data?

I am creating portfolios using stock data. I have some missing data for certain months. What is the best way to handle this? Should I treat missing months as a return of zero? I want to try and ...
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2answers
81 views

Daily returns to monthly basic question [closed]

I am currently a little bit puzzled. I am trying to compute the monthly returns from a set of data. ...
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1answer
34 views

Calculating Compound Annualized Rate of Return (Negative Mantissa)

According to Kaufman (Trading Systems and Methods, 2013), the compound annualized rate of return is calculated as follows: $$\mathrm{AROR}_\mathrm{compound} = \left[ \left( \frac{\mathrm{Final ...
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2answers
826 views

Predicting stock returns with GARCH in Python

I have seen this post: Correctly applying GARCH in Python which shows how to correctly apply GARCH models in Python using the arch library. Now I am wondering how I ...
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2answers
104 views

Volatility Index for Industries

The VIX index is based on the S&P, I am wondering the feasibility of creating a VIX index for each of the S&P 500 Industries? Would this even be possible?
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3answers
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Calculating Sharpe Ratio with dynamic position sizing

I'm currently backtesting a mean reversion pairs trading strategy. However, instead of simple long or short trading signals, I'm using multiple "levels", where the further away the spread is from the ...
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1answer
59 views

IRR for irregular cashflow in and out

So I work for a real estate development umbrella company and the developers that work within it borrow money as needed from the company and receive a percentage of the inflows after repayment of debt. ...
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1answer
121 views

Why is there no closed-form equation for XIRR?

Everything I have read about XIRR (e.g., as calculated in Excel) says that there is no closed-form equation and it must be calculated by iterated approximation. Could someone give a brief ...
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2answers
81 views

Calculating excess returns

I would like to know if I am calculating these excess returns correctly. I have here an R dataframe with weekly 3-month treasury bill rates, and the arithmetic ...
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2answers
232 views

question on XIRR (excel)

Let's say we have an initial investment of -10 on 1/1/2000, and from 1/1/2001 to 1/1/2018 (with annual payments on Jan-1 of each year for 18 years) we get a CF of +2 each year with a final payment of ...
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1answer
302 views

How are Fama French Factor Returns for the last 3 and 12 months calculated?

In the Fama/French data library the monthly research factors for the Fama-French-3-Factor-Model and the Fama-French-5-Factor-Model are presented. I don't see how they are calculating the factor ...
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2answers
714 views

How to calculate “portfolio cumulative return” from individual price data and weight of them?

I'm trying to run backtest in a vectorized way using Python Pandas and need to calculate a portfolio cumulative return from price data and weight of asset data. I ...
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2answers
193 views

Portfolio returns with unequal asset return histories

Using the package PerformanceAnalytics in R, I am trying to calculate the return of an equal-weighted portfolio that contains 30 assets. However, these assets do not have the same starting point in ...
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1answer
49 views

How does inflation impact stock returns? Academic examples

For a literature survey in my university class, I have been asked the question "How does inflation impact stock returns?". After reading some informal articles (in periodicals/ the general internet), ...
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1answer
218 views

What is the Probability Distribution of Max-Drawdown?

How to obtain the probability distribution of Maximum Drawdown, starting from the probability distribution of Daily Returns? Here the details: Suppose I have a time serie of N=1000 daily returns. ...
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63 views

How to Calculate Stock Return with Stock Bonuses and Rights?

I would appreciate if you could let me know how to calculate stock return for a given company when the company issued bonus shares and rights. If company just paid dividends, stock return would be: ...
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1answer
76 views

What are the units of the variance of returns?

I am a little confused about the units of the variance of returns. One way to compute that would be to look at the units of returns- $$r=\frac{1}{\Delta t}\ln\frac{P(t+\Delta t)}{P(t)}=\text{...