# Questions tagged [returns]

The asset rate of returns is the profit on a particular investment; it includes any change in the asset value, interest, commission or dividends and so, all other cash-flows which an investors receive or pays due to the investment.

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### How to properly calculate leveraged returns

Imagine we have a certain price movement, where the price starts at 1000 and ends at 1200, with some fluctuations in the middle. For the sake of the example, imagine it's hourly timestamps, and it's a ...
284 views

### Estimating distribution of rate of return

Let $f[t]$ be the price of a stock at time $t$. We can calculate the rolling rate of return of the stock in a window of length $n$ by computing: $$r[t] = \frac{f[t] - f[t-n]}{f[t-n]}$$ $r[t]$ is ...
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### Should I use an arithmetic or a geometric calculation for the Sharpe Ratio?

What are the advantages/disadvantages of using the arithmetic Sharpe Ratio vs the geometric Sharpe Ratio? Is one more correct? Or is one better in certain circumstances?
136 views

### Bound on path length of a stock price

Consider a time series $(S_i)$ representing a stock price (say close prices of one minute candles). Let $\Delta$ be a quantization step (could be the price step in the strike prices of the ...
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### How to calculate the BHAR (Buy-and-Hold Abnormal Returns)?

I am doing my research related to IPOs long term performance. For the $\text{BHAR}$ (Buy-and-Hold Abnormal Returns) formula, I just want to clarify the formula is that always compare with the first ...
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### Determing "fair" implied volatilities for SPX options

I'm trying to come up with a method to calculate fair IVs for SPX options based on historical data. I can't find much information on this so here's how I've thought to do it: Determine a metric for ...
83 views

### What is the proper way to calculate cumulative return when only a portion of the portfolio is invested?

I have a hypothetical investment strategy that returns $x$ amount after $n$ days for a $1/n$ portion of the portfolio. I want total cumulative portfolio return. Is this right? Basically, I calculate ...
59 views

### How to compute % return of a strategy with Vega notional [duplicate]

I'm currently running some backtest on a strategy 2 legs and where the product traded is straddle. I aim on this strategy to be Vega neutral thanks to a balance between 2 legs. Thus, I deal with Vega ...
131 views

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### cumulative return calculation, disagreement

A friend of mine and myself are having an argument on how to correctly determine cumulative return. The dataset has monthly return data and we are trying to determine the 6-month cumulative return. ...
1 vote
208 views

### Return forecasting for portfolio optimization

I have some questions related to forecasting returns and how it's used to generate the inputs for portfolio optimization. First, I want to understand why factor models such as FF- 3-factor model are ...
1 vote
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### How to calculate return on investment for an adjustment to a complex options position?

Say I currently hold a set of options positions with the same symbol/expiry that collectively have a net present value based on the estimated value at expiration of +10. I could also liquidate the ...
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### How do you define returns when price may be negative (electricity price)?

I'm trying to model GARCH volatility on electricity prices. Typically the first step is to use prices to obtain log returns to make them stationary. I have encountered a small problem however: ...
1 vote
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### Scaling variables (Fraction vs % vs log) when regressing twelve month returns

Dear Stack community, My question is the following; If my dependent variable is twelve month returns. And as independent variables I have fiscal year variables like ROA and log variables like the log ...
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### Equity and Credit Portfolio Return

This might sound like a trivial question but would appreciate the answer. How would you calculate the return of the portfolio consisting of only equity and credit instruments? For example, consider ...
1 vote
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### How to apply derived beta to daily change?

I've taken three months of price return data for two instruments and calculated a $\beta$ between the two using the formula $\beta = \frac{Cov(x,y}{Var(y)}$ with the goal of estimating what the ...
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### Calculating Portfolios Covariance via Bilinearity with Log or Simple Returns

I'm wanting to calculate the covariance between two portfolios $A$ and $B$ which are allocated to assets $X_i$ (where $i \in \left[1, 2, \cdots, N \right]$) with weights $\vec{w_A}$ and $\vec{w_B}$, ...
1 vote
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### Compounding vs Annualizing Returns in a Portfolio Optimization Context

This might be a rather basic question that might be closed... but I can't for the life of me understand why in many Google search results the annualization of daily returns is done like this: r_yearly ...
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### How to calculate weighted return of two stock prices? [closed]

I have 2 list of returns A = [0.00538467, 0.04701923, 0.00170811,...] B = [0.00299271, -0.0060228 , -0.07761099,...] I take long position in A and short in B. How to calculate the total return and ...
1 vote
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### Contribution to compound returns

When trying to recreate this chart from Deutsche on contribution to compound returns of an asset class I'm using log returns of each percentile group (bottom, mid, top), take the sum and divide each ...
1 vote
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### Tricky question about returns [duplicate]

I have a list of monthly returns. -10% -20% -70% -30% -15% -60% The total end return is -94.859%. Because you calculate = 100 x (1+ -10%) x (1+ -20%) x ... Now I ...
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### Effect size for information coefficient

The information coefficient is the correlation between a signal $g(t)$ and returns $r(t)$. I’m hoping to build some practical intuition on the information coefficient. Similar to the notion of effect ...
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1 vote
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### Total Return on Bond [closed]

I'm trying to calculate the total return (in %) on a 9% coupon 20-year bond with the following assumptions: reinvestment rate of 6% annually (3% every six months) terminal yield of 12% (semiannual ...
1 vote
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### How does one calculate carry-roll-down theoretically assuming expectations of short-term rates are realised

I am not asking for an explanation that is hugely quantitative, but rather one that is more intuitive. I am aware that there are different assumptions that one could take when it comes to carry-roll-...
1 vote
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### Variance of the price from returns variance

Let's say that we have the variance of the daily return at $t_0$: $$\sigma_{r_{t_0}}^2=\text{Var}[r_{t_0}]=\text{Var}[\frac{S_{t_0}-S_{t_0-1}}{S_{t_0-1}}]$$ for price process $S_t$. Is there a way to ...
1 vote
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### Figuring out how TradingView calculates the Sharpe ratio [closed]

This is the simplest backtest I've come up with, yet I can't figure out how TradingView has calculated the Sharpe ratio to be 0.577. I've set the risk_free_rate=0. Is it possible to extract the ...
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### Why can I use equilibrium asset pricing models to predict future returns?

This is a general question that applies to the CAPM and any version of the APT (e.g. the Fama & French three factor model). Speaking in terms of the APT: Assuming a simple one-index version of the ...
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### Estimating Returns with the Non-Central t-distribution

The Boost C++ Libraries provide a set of statistical distributions in their Math Toolkit library. The best candidate I can find among those available that will capture skew and kurtosis typically ...
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### Is there a formal notion of a "reward measure"?

A risk measure, as defined in the Wikipedia page, is a function that maps random variables to real numbers and satisfies the normalized, translative, and monotone properties. There are many other ...
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### Does the expected return increase with variance for stocks? [duplicate]

I took a historical dataset of ~2600 stocks and computed the 30-day returns for non-overlapping windows, for a 9 year period. For the returns, I computed the mean and variance. Then I plotted the mean ...
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### Calculating log-returns across multiple securities and time

I've been getting very confused on the topic of calculating returns. To get cumulative returns in time, log-returns are used, but apparently log-returns aren't used across different securities at a ...
1 vote
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### How to calculate "portfolio cumulative return" from individual price data and weight of them?

I'm trying to run backtest in a vectorized way using Python Pandas and need to calculate a portfolio cumulative return from price data and weight of asset data. I ...
166 views

### Intraday tick volatility between a time interval

I would like to calculate intraday tick volatility between a time interval A to B. E.g. If I have the quote and trade ticks for an instrument between 2023-02-17 10:00:02 to 2023-02-17 14:30:00, would ...
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### How to annualize Sharpe Ratio if monthly returns are serially correlated? Calculation of autocorrelations

I am looking at a data set of 60 monthly returns (last 5 years) and want to calculate an annualized Sharpe Ratio. The usual way of doing this is to calculate the monthly Sharpe Ratio first, and then ...
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### long short portfolio sharpe ratio

What is the proper way to caluclate sharpe ratio for the long short portfolio? When I calculate daily return with no cost, I use this formula: (return for long k.mean()+ (-1)*(return for short k.mean()...
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### Bias-Variance tradeoff for Covariance Estimation w/ Different Frequencies

In general, what does the bias-variance tradeoff look like when estimating covariance matrices with varying return frequencies (i.e. daily, weekly, monthly returns)? From my observations I've noticed ...
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### How to identify daily returns as an unusual daily return given a dataset

I am currently calculating daily returns of a stock with the following formula: $$R_t = \frac{P_t - P_{t-1}}{P_{t-1}}$$ However, once I have the data, I am unable to establish a range to classify the ...