# Questions tagged [returns]

The asset rate of returns is the profit on a particular investment; it includes any change in the asset value, interest, commission or dividends and so, all other cash-flows which an investors receive or pays due to the investment.

359 questions
Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
21 views

### Is “time value of currency” to be accounted for in returns calculation?

A simple question: When exchanging currency in order to finance an investment, is it standard/best practice to adjusted for exchange rates when calculating the NPL of that investment? For example: I, ...
63 views

### The use of volatility from log returns and raw return

As far as I know, we usually use log returns( $ln\frac{p_{t+1}}{p_{t}}$ ) in quantitative finance. For example, let's say we have lots of monthly log returns data, $R_m$. Then, we can get the mean ...
9k views

### Calculate Average Price, Cost, (Un)Realized P&L of a position based on executed trades

We have built an algorithmic trading software and need to calculate the following parameters for each position in our portfolio. Average Price Cost Realized Profit & Loss Unrealized Profit & ...
40 views

### Daily to Monthly Performance Attribution - Getting Effects to equal the Excess Return

I am building a performance attribution tool on Python to help us understand the asset allocation, stock selection effects of our fund. We are using daily price data for each component within the ...
67 views

### Calculating returns with trading costs

This perhaps is an over simplification of calculating trading returns while including trading costs. I've made some assumptions - the commission for investing and extracting an investment is 1% and 2% ...
63 views

### Does asset volume, rather than asset returns, predict performance?

Asset returns are the most common data type used in finance. They are derived from closing price data. Ordinary level 1 data for stocks not only consists of closing prices, but also gross volume ...
20 views

### Fama Foundations of Finance today

Which could be a recent equivalent of Fama's book Foundations of Finance? By "equivalent" I mean a book which is rigorous, but without being a book on stochastic calculus; which is focused on stock ...
35 views

### Results of Fama MacBeth regression

I have run Fama MacBeth cross section regression of of Excess Return of stocks on Idiosyncratic volatility, the log of market capitalization, book to equity ratio and Beta. I'm getting all significant ...
56 views

### The ratio of upside deviation to downside deviation in portfolio weighting

I've been calling this ratio "acceleration" in my head, so I'll do the same in this post. The question is, is this relationship used anywhere and if so, how? My thought process is as follows. Risk ...
45 views

### Correct calculation of returns from a pairs trade

I am trying to understand how pairs trading works but I am confused about how to go about calculating the return on the pairs trade when I reverse my positions. I have been reading 'Pairs Trading - ...
24 views

### Stock returns: Exponential time decay

I am replicating some research that uses two years of single stock returns (i.e. N= 250*2= 500) and then applies an exponential decay with a half-life of one year to these returns. Does this mean ...
18 views

### How can I find the exit equity value from my dataset (please read description and see screenshot below)

I am investigating the returns of private equity using a public market equivalent (PME) and have been given a dataset from the that has provided us with the deal level IRR, the entry equity data and ...
19 views

### is it possible to have a leverage ratio of less than 1?

I know you can leverage to be greater than 1, but is it possible to have less than 1? Like 0.5 for example? So that this scenario could be realized? ...
62 views

### Compound the monthly returns to make them quarterly [closed]

How can someone make the Kenneth French library data returns quarterly from monthly? Since they are not loq returns, then you need to compound returns rather than summing them up. I want to make the ...
25 views

### How can a stock have negative returns but positive 3-factor alpha?

I've come across a research paper where for a specific period of time, the portfolio has negative returns (or roughly flat returns). During this same period of time, the portfolio's Fama-French 3-...
7k views

### Fama-French Data from daily to monthly returns

Ken French on his website publishes daily, monthly and yearly returns for the Fama-French 3 Factors model which are excess market (Rm-Rf), small-minus-big (SMB) and high-minus-low (HML) returns. I ...
46 views

### How do I maximize my expected utility of wealth?

Suppose I have a utility function say $U(p)=p^{1/2}$ and I bet on a basketball game. I have my initial investment, payouts and probabilities of winning, how can I determine the maximum I need to bet ...
58 views

### Calculating the daily continuously compounded return from index values

Given I have 3 index values at time $t = 0, 1 , 2$, how would I go about calculating the daily continuously compounded return? Time: $0, 1, 2$ Index Values: $4000, 4086, 4114$ Any help would be ...
33 views

### How can I convert rolling annual returns back to quarterly returns?

I have a series of rolling annual returns and would like to convert these back to quarterly returns, which have not been provided. Is this possible formulaically, or is something like Excel's solver ...
37 views

### Statistical significance of mean returns between two portfolios

Suppose I have developed two versions ($A$ and $B$) of a factor model for ranking stocks. Both versions of the model use the same scoring system: stocks are percentile ranked within a given universe ...
297 views

### How to calculate return on investment for an adjustment to a complex options position?

Say I currently hold a set of options positions with the same symbol/expiry that collectively have a net present value based on the estimated value at expiration of +10. I could also liquidate the ...
608 views

### CAPM - Expected vs. actual returns

I'm trying to calculate alpha in excess of CAPM and have seen a few slightly different calculations for CAPM. The primary difference I am seeing is that some equations use expected market returns (e....
38 views

### Incremental/marginal contribution to VaR in a simulation setting

Estimating marginal contributions to VaR in a simulation setting is apparently quite difficult (see e.g. this blog post) due to issues with sampling variability. My question is whether the following ...
366 views

### How do you define returns when price may be negative (electricity price)?

I'm trying to model GARCH volatility on electricity prices. Typically the first step is to use prices to obtain log returns to make them stationary. I have encountered a small problem however: ...
42 views

### Returns on the Fama-French size sorted portfolios

For my thesis, I need to replicate a specific research paper in the field of empirical asset pricing, mentioning the CAPM in particular. The data mainly consists of monthly returns on portfolios ...
22 views

### Overnight and intraday returns of stock index and ETF seem inconsistent

Figure 2 of the 2019 paper "Celebrating Three Decades of Worldwide Stock Market Manipulation" shows that 29 Jan 1993 to 31 Oct 2019, overnight returns (from close to open) of SPY were 1232% while ...
292 views

68 views

### Understanding Fama Macbeth Regressions of Returns

I'm trying to understand what the Fama-Macbeth regressions of returns actually mean. The source of confusion is a 2013 Novy-Marx paper, in which he states the following: "The first specification of ...
3k views

### Predicting stock returns with GARCH in Python

I have seen this post: Correctly applying GARCH in Python which shows how to correctly apply GARCH models in Python using the arch library. Now I am wondering how I ...
13k views

### What kind of return can an average algorithmic trading firm achieve today?

What kind of rate of return can an average, equities-focused algorithmic trading firm expect to achieve today? I come from a background of control and optimization, working in the industry in China, ...
85 views

### Bloomberg Treasuries PX_Last and daily returns

I tried to search for this specific question, although I didn’t found a conclusive answer. I have a dataset containing the yields of several T-Bills and T-Notes that were downloaded from a Bloomberg ...
58 views

### What does a regression of squared returns of stock on squared index returns and lags show?

We have a squared stock return at t regressed on 3 variables: squared index return, squared stock return at t-1, and squared index return at t-1. My two questions would be: 1. What does this test ...
517 views

### How to calculate standard deviation of continuously compounded four-year stock returns?

Currently I am preparing for quant interview and I encounter the following question in Heard on the street. Question: If the standard deviation of continuously compounded annual stock returns is \$...