Questions tagged [swaps]

SWAPs are a common name for exchange operations between two (or more) counter-parties with various financial instruments like cashflows (IRS), currency (XCCY), credit risk (CDS), et cetera

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24
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6answers
46k views

how to derive yield curve from interest rate swap?

According to some textbooks, to derive the yield curve, quote overnight to 1 week: rates from interbank money market deposit, 1 month to 1 year: LIBOR; 1 year to 7 years: Interest Rate Swap; 7 ...
24
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2answers
50k views

What is the Swap Curve?

What is the so-called Swap Curve, and how does it relate to the Zero Curve (or spot yield curve)? Does it only refer to a curve of swap rates versus maturities found in the market? Or is it a swap ...
22
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2answers
12k views

Cross Currency Swap Pricing in nowadays environment

Multicurve setting has now become the new paradigm for vanilla swap valuation. For the record I give here (without getting into too much details) the methodoloy for pricing Euribor3M swaps in this ...
18
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5answers
19k views

Why would an investor trade a variance swap over a volatility swap?

Why would an investor trade a variance swap over a volatility swap? Is it simply related to the leverage involved in a Var (i.e. sigma-squared) or is there something else to it?
17
votes
1answer
13k views

What is the reason for the convexity adjustment when pricing a constant maturity swap (CMS)?

I'm trying to wrap my head around pricing a Constant Maturity Swap (CMS). Let's imagine the following deal: 6m LIBOR in one direction, 10y swap rate in the other. The discount curve is derived from ...
11
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3answers
2k views

Deriving Interest Rates

I am trying to teach myself about interest rate swaps, how they are priced, etc... Easy enough - just comparing cash flows of fixed and floating rate bonds. However, what I'm struggling with is how ...
10
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2answers
5k views

Why using the swap curve as riskfree rate and no longer gov bonds?

I recently had an interview where I was asked what to use as risk-free rate. In all my textbooks it was always the US treasury yield curve. But they said no its now the "swap curve". Why is the swap ...
10
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1answer
768 views

How to build the short end of a zero coupon curve for non-core Eurozone countries?

I am in the process of building zero coupon curves for some countries in the Eurozone. I have the following data sets: Euribor and EONIA Swap rates Bond price and yields The bond prices (and thus ...
9
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2answers
6k views

Calculate interest rate swap curve from Eurodollar futures price

So I was reading Robert McDonald's "Derivatives Markets" and it says Eurodollar futures price can be used to obtain a strip of forward interest rates. We can then use this to obtain the implied ...
8
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3answers
2k views

Why is a variance swap long skew?

I can appreciate the mathematical derivation, but can anyone explain this in a more intuitive sense? I often come across the mistaken belief that due to the replicating portfolio being long more ...
8
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5answers
19k views

Convexity adjustment for a forward swap rate

I recently heard that for a forward swap rate (for example, the fixed rate of a swap that will start in one year and end in five years), I need to do a convexity adjustment in order to get the right ...
8
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1answer
2k views

Where do swap rates and/or long-term forward rates come from?

I apologize if this is supposed to be obvious, but ... . Libor spot rates are quoted up to a year, beyond that one can use Eurodollar futures to continue to build the curve. Let's say up to 3 years. ...
8
votes
1answer
307 views

Derivation of VIX Formula

I've read a lot of derivations about VIX formula. I can say it is -adjusted- fair strike of variance swap. But I can't see how it goes from variance swap rate to VIX formula. In particular I can't see ...
8
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2answers
1k views

Varswap Basis - What is it in practice?

What is the varswap basis? I am not completely sure what this number represents. Is it the basis between the estimated future realized volatility and the vol surface implied volatilty at a specified ...
8
votes
1answer
4k views

Forward and discount curves for cross currency swaps

I have a EUR-GBP cross currency swap, collateralised in GBP, each leg is paying 3m EURIBOR/LIBOR respectively. I know GBP leg can be modelled with 3m LIBOR forward curve and GBP OIS discount curve. ...
8
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1answer
5k views

How to calculate a forward-starting swap with forward equations?

I have been trying to resolve this problem for some time but I cannot get the correct answer. The problem is the following one. Compute the initial value of a forward-starting swap that begins at ...
7
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2answers
1k views

Why is USD LIBOR used for USD denominated securities?

I am just starting on Interest Rate Swaps & curve construction. While reading few materials on Interest Rate Swap, it's indicated for e.g. "Floating Coupon Index: 6 month USD LIBOR". LIBOR is ...
7
votes
2answers
431 views

Is it true that pricing an IR swap doesn't require any stochastic model but calculation of the PFE of an IR swap would?

Pricing an IR swap doesn't require any stochastic model but calculation of the PFE for an IR swap would require the Hull White Model or any other stochastic short rate or forward rate model. Is this ...
6
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3answers
5k views

Why is CSA currency OIS rate used in discounting instead of local currency OIS?

I have been struggling to understand the logic behind cross currency OIS discounting (where cash flows happen in different currencies than the collateral is paid). I will illustrate my question ...
6
votes
2answers
1k views

What is a standard credit default swap contract and where can I find spread data? What alternatives exist to judge creditworthiness?

I'm doing some work for a company and one of my tasks is to research credit default swaps on banks and to write a page about them explaining what they are and how they're used to evaluate the banks' ...
5
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3answers
9k views

How to hedge the fixed leg of a swap contract?

I happened to get this question for Fixed Income Swap contract. (let's assume it's it's not cross currency). If the fixed leg is paying 10% interest rate in this contract, but in the market the ...
5
votes
1answer
249 views

Discount curve and payment frequency

In case of uncollateralised trades, where we use LIBOR rates for discounting, does the LIBOR tenor have to match with the payment frequency? For example, one of the swap leg pays USD floating amount ...
5
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2answers
603 views

Vol swaps Vol of vol

I an quite unfamiliar with those products and would like to understand why they require a vol of vol model for pricing. The variance swap is replicated (assuming no cash dividends) with a delta hedged ...
5
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1answer
2k views

Static and Dynamic Hedging of Vol/Var Swaps

Why can a variance swap be perfectly statically hedged whereas a volatility swap requires dynamic hedging? Possible reference request to the corresponding literature.
5
votes
1answer
402 views

Replicating Log Contract - Errors Introduced by Jumps

In the GS Research Note about Volatility Swaps, it is shown that you can replicate a pure variance exposure (hedge) with only vanilla calls and puts, primarily thanks to the Carr-Madan formula of ...
5
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3answers
4k views

Cross Currency Swap pricing

I have seen two methods for calculating the value of a xccy swap - 1) Convert the future foreign payments to the base currency using forward FX rates, net with the base currency payments and ...
5
votes
1answer
273 views

Equivalency of FX forwards and FX fixed for fixed swaps? Are they still the same under multiple curves environment?

I am encountering two approaches for valuation of FX swaps (fixed for fixed, e.g. fixed USD payments for fixed EUR payments) which seem to result into different values although in theory they should ...
5
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2answers
2k views

Is there any gamma in basis (i.e., floating for floating) interest rates swaps?

It is well known that vanilla fixed for floating swaps usually have a bit of gamma, but does a floating for floating (basis) swap have any? For the sake of simplicity, let's assume that both legs of ...
5
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1answer
3k views

Basket equity swap

What are the advantages of buying basket equity swaps derivative compared to single equity swap? Will correlation play a role in basket equity swap? Thanks in advance
4
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4answers
1k views

Why does the ultra long-end of a yield curve invert?

The shape of the yield curve (at least in the GBP Rates market) is upward sloping from the front end up to the long end (i.e. 30y), but then begins to become downward sloping as we go beyond 30y and ...
4
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2answers
1k views

Plain Vanilla Interest Rate Swap

I'm trying to build an intuitive understanding of the following The price of the replicating portfolio at time $t$ of the floating rate receiver is $P_t^{swap}=P_{t,t_0}-P_{t,t_N}-\bar{R}\sum_{n=1}^...
4
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1answer
4k views

What is the difference between OIS Swap vs Basis Swap?

What is the use of OIS Swap Curve vs. Basis Swap Curve?
4
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3answers
2k views

What curve are you shifting when you calculate DV01 for a swap?

I understand that a general swap has 4 curves attached to it: the flat forecast curve associated with the fixed leg, the forecast curve associated with the floating leg, the fixed leg discount curve ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

Why is “full” Yield Curve (term structure of interest rates) 3 component based?

I am trying to understand bond-valuation and construction of yield curve. I don't have any exposure to bootstrapping or what-so-ever as of now. So it's appreciated to have an example but not too ...
4
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2answers
2k views

How do insurance companies use interest-rate swaps?

I have heard that insurance companies make use of swaps and am just trying to get some clarity on that: An insurance company (assume life insurance) has a fixed obligation to pay in the distant ...
4
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1answer
3k views

QuantLib Python Swap Yield Curve Bootstrapping Dates and Maturities

This is somewhat related to the question I asked here but simpler. I am trying to bootstrap a yield curve from swaps, and am having a problem with the dates/maturities that are coming out. The code ...
4
votes
1answer
7k views

Equivalency of FX forwards and FX basis swaps for risk-management purposes

Can one deem an FX float-to-float swap and a FX forward equivalent on dates immediately after repricing? The reason I am asking, I am hedging something that can be modeled via an FX forward, I was ...
4
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1answer
2k views

Valuing Total Return Swaps

In my quest for simulated data, I am trying to generate prices for Total Return Swaps by calculating the NPVs of the fixed and floating leg. My problem: Given the fixed leg, how do I set the spread on ...
4
votes
1answer
505 views

Calculating PnL on Swap Spread Trade

Say I am a long a 10Y US govt. bond and short (i.e., pay fixed) a 10Y US IRS. The swap spread moves, for example, from -0.25 to -0.3. What do I need to calculate P&L (approximately)? Are such ...
4
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2answers
2k views

Why is convexity adjustment applied to swap price for a nonstandard swap, in simple terms?

Martinelli et al. show that when the 3-month Libor is replaced by the 3-month Libor forward rates (which are obtained from the spot zero-coupon yield) then the swap price depends only on zero-coupon ...
4
votes
1answer
531 views

Hedging with variance swaps: how to calculate the notional

Returns on an asset are negatively correlated with own variance, and I would like to set up a hedge with a variance swap (no options are traded). I need to decide on the notional of the swap: any ...
4
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2answers
403 views

If floating leg in an arrears swap is paid on the date then valuing them is like predicting future

From what I am reading arrears swap are paid on the same day(actually, +2 business days for JPY and USD) as the reset date. To me then, a week before the reset date the floating rate is not known. ...
4
votes
2answers
326 views

Cross-Currency Inflation-Linked Swap

I am trying to find any references to cross-currency inflation-linked swaps. Have anyone encountered them and can describe how they work and how they differ from standard year on year inflation swaps?
4
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1answer
1k views

Incoherence in Bloomberg Data in Swap Curve Builder (ICSV)

When working on calibration for LMM model, we need to have Initial Libor quotes and Swaptions Black vol quotes on the market data. We have data provided by Bloomberg. However, before performing the ...
4
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0answers
61 views

Replication of a dividend swap

I wanted to know how banks replicate dividend swap, my best guess is to take the spread between a Total Return Swap and a Forward.
4
votes
1answer
296 views

Exposure calculation of a re-coupon swap

How to calculate the exposure of a recoupon swap (when the MTM of an i.r. swap is settled and the fixed rate is reset to the prevailing swap rate for the residual maturity). It's used to reduce the ...
3
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3answers
4k views

Why do FX Swaps have Interest Rate Risk?

I know that FX Swaps have FX Risk, but why do FX Swaps have Interest Rate Risk as well? Need some guidance on this.
3
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3answers
13k views

What is a Constant Maturity Swap (CMS) rate?

I have been searching in books and on the internet for a basic definition and explanation of CMS rates, but I cannot find anything clear and simple. Can you explain (maybe with an example) what a CMS ...
3
votes
2answers
3k views

Does an Interest Rate Swap has a Vega component?

I am a bit confused on how you calculate vega for Interest Rate Swap. One argument is that IR Swap is a combination of fixed rate bond and floating rate bond. Since a bond has no vega component, IR ...
3
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3answers
232 views

PCA for Risk bucketing

I'm working on a project to justify the use the certain tenors (2y, 5y, 10y, 30y) for risk bucketing. I'm a little stuck after calculating the principal components. Just to describe my approach- a) ...