Questions tagged [time-series]

A temporal sequence of events measured at discrete points in time.

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87 votes
10 answers
47k views

Building Financial Data Time Series Database from scratch

My company is starting a new initiative aimed at building a financial database from scratch. We would be using it in these ways: Time series analysis of: a company's financial data (ex: IBM's total ...
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81 votes
9 answers
37k views

Efficiently storing real-time intraday data in an application agnostic way

What would be the best approach to handle real-time intraday data storage? For personal research I've always imported from flat files only into memory (historical EOD), so I don't have much ...
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72 votes
8 answers
31k views

Is R being replaced by Python at quant desks?

I know the title sounds a little extreme but I wonder whether R is phased out by a lot of quant desks at sell side banks as well as hedge funds in favor of Python. I get the impression that with ...
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59 votes
6 answers
28k views

How are correlation and cointegration related?

In what ways (and under what circumstances) are correlation and cointegration related, if at all? One difference is that one usually thinks of correlation in terms of returns and cointegration in ...
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53 votes
8 answers
27k views

Time-series similarity measures

Suppose I have two time series $X$ and $Y$ of stock prices. How do I measure the "similarity" of $X$ and $Y$? (I'm being deliberately vague as I don't have a particular application, and I'm curious ...
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  • 781
50 votes
4 answers
7k views

How much data is needed to validate a short-horizon trading strategy?

Suppose one has an idea for a short-horizon trading strategy, which we will define as having an average holding period of under 1 week and a required latency between signal calculation and execution ...
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49 votes
5 answers
9k views

How do I graphically represent the evolution of a covariance matrix over time?

I am working with a set of covariance matrices evaluated at various points in time over some history. Each covariance matrix is $N\times N$ for $N$ financial time-series over $T$ periods. I would ...
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  • 13.1k
32 votes
6 answers
20k views

What is the intuition behind cointegration?

What is the intuition behind cointegration? What does the Dickey-Fuller test do to test for it? Ideally, a non-technical explanation would be appreciated. Say you need to explain it to an investor ...
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  • 2,637
31 votes
4 answers
19k views

Performance of Open Source Time Series Database for Financial Market Data

We would like to store financial tick data in a database (potentially billions of rows) and then create aggregated (open-high-low-close) bar data from it (e.g. 1min or 5min bars). It was mentioned ...
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30 votes
8 answers
36k views

What is the best data structure/implementation for representing a time series?

I was wondering what is best practice for representing elements in a time series, especially with large amounts of data. The focus/context is in a back testing engine and comparing multiple series. ...
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  • 561
29 votes
4 answers
10k views

What is a stationary process?

How do you explain what a stationary process is? In the first place, what is meant by process, and then what does the process have to be like so it can be called stationary?
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  • 2,637
24 votes
2 answers
3k views

How to quickly estimate a lower bound on correlation for a large number of stocks?

I would like to find stock pairs that exhibit low correlation. If the correlation between A and B is 0.9 and the correlation between A and C is 0.9 is there a minimum possible correlation for B and C? ...
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23 votes
4 answers
7k views

Can the concept of entropy be applied to financial time series?

I am not familiar with the concept of entropy for time series. I am looking for good reference papers and examples of use.
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  • 1,983
23 votes
5 answers
25k views

Why are GARCH models used to forecast volatility if residuals are often correlated?

The answers to this question on forecast assessment suggest that if the sequence of residuals from the forecast are not properly independent, then the model is missing something and further changes ...
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22 votes
6 answers
65k views

How to fit ARMA+GARCH Model In R?

I am currently working on ARMA+GARCH model using R. I am looking out for example which explain step by step explanation for fitting this model in R. I have time series which is stationary and I am ...
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  • 1,327
22 votes
2 answers
4k views

Is there a standard method for getting a continuous time series from futures data?

I would like to be able to analyse futures prices as one continuous time series, so what kinds of methods exist for combining the prices for the various delivery dates into a single time series? I am ...
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21 votes
7 answers
3k views

How random are financial data series?

Pseudorandom number generators are often tested using e.g. a test suite like Diehard tests or Dieharder. If one would run these tests e.g. on stock market time series or other financial data, would ...
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  • 563
20 votes
5 answers
2k views

Why quants think that the risk-neutral measure should not be used for financial forecasting?

In posts regarding the $\mathbb{P}$ vs $\mathbb{Q}$ debate (see 1, 2, 3 or 4), most answers conclude that historical-based forecast are better suited than risk-neutral models for financial predictions....
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  • 1,401
20 votes
8 answers
37k views

How to check if a timeseries is stationary?

I'm using KPSS Method to check if the series is stationary, but I would also like to use another test to confirm if the series is stationary or not, what method coudl I use?
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  • 201
19 votes
2 answers
5k views

How to update an exponential moving average with missing values?

Say you have an Exponential Moving Average being continuously updated over a time series using 1-second-long time periods. What should happen if there is no value for the next second, e.g. there were ...
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19 votes
6 answers
22k views

Why non-stationary data cannot be analyzed?

Searching online, i found out that non-stationary cannot be analyzed with traditional econometric techniques as in case of non-stationarity some basic model assupmtions are not met and correct ...
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  • 407
18 votes
3 answers
3k views

How to detect regime change when estimating asset correlation from historical time series?

Suppose I have two asset time series, $X_t$ and $Y_t$, and I'm estimating their correlation from historical data. I'd like to apply some systematic criterion to estimate what time window I should use ...
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  • 3,202
18 votes
6 answers
3k views

How to generate a random price series with a specified range and correlation with an actual price?

I want to generate a mock price series. I want it to be within a certain range and have a defined correlation with the original price series. If I choose, say, oil, I want as many time series which ...
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18 votes
2 answers
2k views

How to forecast expected volatility from high-frequency equity panel data?

I'm wading through the vast sea of literature on realized volatility estimation and expected volatility forecasting (see, e.g. Realized Volatility by Andersen and Benzoni, which cites 120 other papers,...
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  • 13.1k
17 votes
4 answers
15k views

Why do we usually model returns and not prices?

I think this is a quite similar question for most of you, however it is not completely understandable for me at the moment: Why do we usually use returns and not prices to model financial data in ...
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  • 539
17 votes
1 answer
1k views

Meta-view of different time-series similarity measures?

While I spend most of my StackExchange time on MathematicaSE, I'm in the business and follow the questions and answers on this site with great interest. Recently questions like the following (and ...
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  • 561
17 votes
1 answer
4k views

What is a good topic on financial time series analysis for master thesis?

Can someone suggest a topic or some reasonably narrow area in financial time series analysis (e.g. statistical, machine learning, etc.) which can make a good topic for a master thesis? By 'good' I ...
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16 votes
5 answers
3k views

Are two identical time series cointegrated?

I did cointegration test on two identical time series, and the result shows that they are not cointegrated, but intuitively, I think they are. Can anyone share some thoughts on this? Thanks!
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16 votes
3 answers
7k views

How do I calculate the skewness of a portfolio of assets?

I need to calculate the skewness of a portfolio consisting of 6 assets. I know that for that I would need the co-skewness matrix between the assets. Does anybody know the formula for co-skewness or ...
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  • 161
16 votes
1 answer
10k views

Time Series Regression with Overlapping Data

I am seeing a regression model which is regressing Year-on-Year stock index returns on lagged (12 months) Year-on-Year returns of the same stock index, credit spread (difference between monthly mean ...
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15 votes
1 answer
475 views

What should be considered when selecting a windowing function when smoothing a time series?

If one wants to smooth a time series using a window function such as Hanning, Hamming, Blackman etc. what are the considerations for favouring any one window over another?
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15 votes
0 answers
1k views

Markov-Switching Multifractal and FX Rates

Is there a better model than Markov-Switching Multifractal (MSM) for detecting regime shifts in FX rates across multiple time horizons? I am especially interested in the different aspects of the ...
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  • 293
14 votes
2 answers
522 views

Is a linear combination of GARCH processes also a GARCH process?

If two time series follow a GARCH process, and a third is a linear combination of them, is the third also GARCH process?
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  • 1,019
14 votes
5 answers
5k views

How to interpolate gaps in a time series using closely related time series?

I am trying to construct a daily time series of prices and returns for some large universe of securities. However, all I have available are a monthly time series of the prices/returns (as well as ...
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  • 13.1k
14 votes
4 answers
10k views

R: Fast and efficient way of running a multivariate regression across a (really) large panel (First pass of Fama MacBeth)

I am attempting to run a rolling multivariate regression (14 explanatory variables) across a panel of 5000 stocks: For each of the 5000 stocks, I run 284 regressions (by rolling over my sample period)...
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  • 652
14 votes
3 answers
2k views

Literature on generating synthetic time series for testing

I have some market data (daily time series) for bond prices and CDS indices and I would like to generate synthetic versions of these which are statistically "similar" for testing trading strategies. ...
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  • 241
14 votes
1 answer
4k views

Volume or Dollar bars vs. volatility normalized and demeaned financial time series

In his book - Advances in Financial Machine Learning, Marcos Lopez de Prado familiarises the reader with a number of ways of normalizing our financial time series data. Below I provide a couple of ...
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14 votes
2 answers
11k views

What time series database can be used with Python and Pandas?

I'm looking for a time series database that can be easily used with Python and Pandas objects such as DataFrame, Panel... But these objects will always contains time series. Ideally I'm looking for ...
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14 votes
2 answers
22k views

GARCH model and prediction

I have a question about the prediction of volatility and returns of a time series. Basically it is a question about predict in the ...
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  • 1,626
14 votes
1 answer
675 views

Can we use White's reality check to compare two Sharpe ratios?

I read a paper from Ledoit and Wolf that proposes a method to compare two Sharpe ratios and a paper from White that proposes a method to compare $n$ trading rules. My question is: Can we use White's ...
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  • 141
13 votes
6 answers
18k views

Are public historical time series available for ratings of sovereign debt?

The nice list of free online data sources What data sources are available online? does not mention any data from ratings agencies. Are historical time series available for sovereign credit ratings (...
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13 votes
1 answer
697 views

What methods do I need to learn in order forecast asset price movements?

What are the standard models used to forecast asset price movements? For example, if I were to trade an option, what model would I use in conjunction with option pricing models to forecast the stock ...
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13 votes
2 answers
1k views

Imposing Restrictions on Cointegrating Vectors, R example

The code given below estimates a VEC model with 4 cointegrating vectors. It is a reproducible code, so just copy and paste into your R console (or script editor). ...
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  • 191
13 votes
4 answers
2k views

Thesis using Momentum strategies in R, tips on good books, guidelines etc on how to do the programming?

I am quite new to R and will be doing an empirical analysis of momentum strategies in R using a dataset from the index OSEAX from 1980 to 2014. The momentum strategy will for the most part resemble ...
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  • 131
13 votes
1 answer
913 views

Alternative ways to understand time-varying comovement between two time-series?

I have been looking into ways to better understand how the dependencies/correlations/etc between two time series can vary over time. I first thought about using a Kalman/particle filter over a ...
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  • 1,470
13 votes
1 answer
790 views

Can Hurst exponent be used to characterize nonlinear dependence in time series?

It appears to me that the answer is no, because Hurst exponent measures persistence in terms of autocorrelation, which is a linear measure. So even if a time series of asset returns is driven by ...
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12 votes
3 answers
729 views

What is a commonly accepted econometric model for volume?

What is the gold standard econometric model for volume? For example, a common model for price is the autoregressive (AR) model with GARCH(1,1) innovations. Do you know of any good survey articles ...
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  • 1,019
12 votes
1 answer
21k views

How to calculate the conditional variance of a time series?

I am reading a paper where the term conditional variance is mentioned, but I am not really sure what is meant by this and how this can be calculated: Fig. 2 shows the conditional variances of the ...
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  • 121
12 votes
2 answers
2k views

How to detect structural breaks in variance?

I'm looking for a method to automatically detect structural breaks, I tried Chow test, It works good but it doens't work for breaks in variance. Do you know a test to check strucutural break in ...
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  • 389
12 votes
4 answers
10k views

Is a stationary process necessarily mean-reverting?

Intuitively, a stationary stochastic process needs to be mean-reverting. This should follow immediately from the definition of stationarity: the mean of the process needs to be constant over time, so ...
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