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Questions tagged [valuation]

The process of determining the price - the value - of an asset.

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1answer
35 views

Security Analysis By Benjamin Graham Example Doubt

So I was reading (trying to read) Security Analysis by Graham and I came across this example ("Example 1" in the image attached below) Being the noob at finance and quant that I am, I was unable to ...
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77 views

NPV and efficient market hypothesis

If I have an opportunity of investment, let's call it investment (A), that costs $I$ in year 0 and gives me $CF_1$ in year 1, I will accept it only if $NPV>0$ $NPV = -I + \dfrac{CF_1}{1+k} > 0$ ...
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1answer
68 views

How to calculate performance of a private equity investment?

Say an investment fund puts \$1 million into private equity investment in 3 installments (\$500k, \$250k, \$250k). You're given a data table which shows the date, contributions (\$500k, \$250k, \$...
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35 views

Which quantitative approaches recommended to buy NKE in 1985? [closed]

This is a historical quantitative finance question. Here is the NKE annual report from 1985. This company increased in value 500 times from 1985 to 2015. Please advise on quantitative finance ...
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2answers
60 views

Pricing of European put option with binomial model

This is an exercise from Mark Joshi's book (exercise 3.6): A stock is worth 100. Each month its value increases or decreases by precisely 10. The riskless bond is worth $e^{rt}$ at time t years with ...
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1answer
66 views

DCF Valuation Models

Does anyone know of any websites that have sample models or mind sharing their DCF models? Trying to get started modeling and can't seem to find many great resources. I know of Damodaran, but his ...
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1answer
68 views

Interest rate swap valuation date convention

When we value interest rate derivatives on any date $t$, we can estimate our future payments using some calibrated forward curve $f_s$, where $s$ is the spot date, and discount these back to $t$ using ...
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39 views

Possible to have different collateral for each party?

Normally bilateral credit support annexes would have both parties post/receive the same collateral be it US treasuries or cash etc. Are there CSAs Where each party has a different set of eligible ...
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44 views

Newbie question on Net Present Value with Constant Growth

Newbie here, trying wrap my head around on why this doesn't add up: Calculating the discounted cash flow of a perpetuity paying $1000 per year, 15% discount rate and 5% growth. If I calculate from ...
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60 views

Real World pricing of a Constant Notional Cross Currency Swap

I have a question about Cross Currency (XCCY) Swap pricing in the real world. There are plenty of papers going nicely into detail, how XCCY Basis Swaps and XCCY Constant Notional Swaps work. Also ...
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1answer
67 views

Covered Interest Rate Parity with FX Spot-Adjustment

The Covered Interest Rate Parity for FX is often quoted simplistically as $$ X_T \quad=\quad X_S \cdot \frac{D^{base}_T}{D^{quote}_T} $$ where $X_t$ is the (projected) FX rate at time $t$ (denoted as $...
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1answer
166 views

Pricing under risk-neutral probabilities for weird derivatives?

I would really appreciate some help to value a weird derivative that I've found in an assignment: $$ X=(S_{T_1}-k)^{+} = \max(S_{T_{1}}-k;0) $$ which expires at time $T_{2}$ and uses the price at ...
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37 views

Perpetual bond valuation between coupon dates

According to this Derive Perpetual Bond Price , I learned how to derive the formula of perpetual bond. However, I still have some questions. Firstly, do I need to change the formula when valuing the ...
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41 views

Theoretical justification for why estimating intrinsic value of a stock price can be different under FCFF and FCFE approaches?

what is the theoretical justification for why estimating intrinsic value of a stock price can be different under FCFF (Free Cash Flow to the Firm) and FCFE (Free Cash Flow to the equity) approaches? ...
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1answer
49 views

Transactional costs for shipping in % based on futures market price

Real case: Imagine I want to move an oil from one terminal to another. I have about 20 +/- tanker companies, but all of them have max capacity on their top deadweight (DWCC) vessel about ...
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66 views

Logic behind calculating a Carry Multiple associated with Startup Valuation [closed]

I'm reading a book called "The #1 Guide to Startup Valuation: How to value your startup in 12 easy steps" (p. 22-23) by Joachim Blazer. As one of the building blocks, namely "Return", the Carry ...
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1answer
112 views

IPO Valuation: Share Pricing and Number of Shares

Does the number of shares matter for a company to go public? Suppose a company ABC went public and the initial valuation of the company shares to be sold stands at \$5000. Now, it can sell 1000 ...
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1answer
45 views

Sum disappearing when we assume constant some elements to be constant over time [closed]

I have the dividend discount model, which is the following expression: $$ P_{j,t} = \sum_{\tau=1}^{\infty}D_\tau(1+g)^\tau(1+r)^{-\tau}=\frac{D_{\tau+1}}{r-g} $$ Where $D_t$, is the dividend at time ...
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1answer
121 views

Comparing Values of 5s and 7% Notes (Security Analysis by Benjamin Graham)

I was reading Security Analysis by Benjamin Graham (Sixth Edition). Page 63, last paragraph says: A third kind of analytical conclusion may be illustrated by a comparison of Interborough ...
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1answer
132 views

Neural Networks for Estimation of Unmarked Private Asset Returns from Market Data

Let's assume it is March and my illiquid private assets portfolio is only 50% marked for 12/31, but I want to get the most accurate estimate of my final return for the quarter ended on 12/31. What is ...
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1answer
90 views

Volatility surface tenors

I don't think this has been asked before, but are the tenors on a volatility surface out of spot date for the currency pair or out of value T+0?
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2answers
153 views

Why use par-value weighted average when valuing portfolio of bonds?

I'm looking at a formula for valuing a portfolio of different bonds that sums the market value times the par value for each bond. Conceptually, why are the bond values weighted in this way by their ...
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311 views

Full Revaluation vs Factor-based Model for risk management

I am looking for literature on comparison of these two approaches. It looks like many places are using some type of Factor-based Model (Barra, Axioma, Northfield, etc.) for risk management purposes. ...
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1answer
69 views

Discounted free cash flow valuation

I started valuating company based on their free cash flow by using DCF valuation.But for some companies i came across negative free cash flow for all years. How can we evaluate company with negative ...
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1answer
71 views

Gordon's dividend valuation model: Ignoring optionality

Currently studying some papers on Behavioral Finance (the dividend puzzle), which employ some basic valuation models, calculating stock's fundamental value $P_t$. The most known is the discount of ...
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1answer
2k views

Valuation of repurchase agreement (classic repo)

From my understanding, a classic repo is an agreement for one party to get cash by placing collateral at a certain price and then get the collateral back at maturity by paying the initial cash plus ...
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1answer
560 views

Quantlib derivative valuation from zero curve

I have newly started with Quantlib-Python for valuing derivatives. In all the examples stated in this bolg or in other places, market quote is inserted and bootstrapping is done via individual rate ...
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2answers
664 views

Bond fund's roll and carry

This is a question about modelling the returns of a bond index. Understand there's quite a bit about the roll and carry of an individual bond, but what about a bond index. Roll I would calculate the ...
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0answers
34 views

Calibration of stock's intrinsic value under the gordon model

Assume we have the constant growth Gordon model, for a stock paying dividend $D$,Earnings per Share $EPS$, annual growth rate $g=ROE*(1-\frac{D}{EPS})$ and discount rate $r$. Then: $IV=\frac{D*(1+g)}...
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106 views

Hull Martingales and measures problem 27.16 7e?

Here's a question from Hull's Options Futures and Other derivatives which I'd appreciate if someone helped me to clarify. The question is from the chapter "Martingales and Measures" Suppose that the ...
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73 views

How to Calculate the Value of a Growing Perpetuity Using a State Price Matrix?

Summary I wish to value perpetual cash flows through state contingent claims on real consumption, where the state of the economy is assumed to follow a finite markov chain (Similar to Banz and Miller ...
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110 views

DCF valuation and the constant WACC assumption

I have a question that has been on my mind ever since I learned about DCF. I was taught that for the DCF to be valid WACC should be constant. As a physicist by training this assumption is strange to ...
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103 views

Why is market cap used to value equity instead of a self consistent solution?

My claim is that if we use the cost of equity of a levered firm via the DCF method then we make errors. Specifically if we find the firm is under-valued then in truth its more under-valued than we ...
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1answer
141 views

Rate of convergence between price and value

In my experience, there are two primary methods of alpha generation. In both cases, assume we know what price is. Method 1: Inference on what the price/payoff will be. Method 2: Inference on what ...
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2answers
196 views

Double knockout binary pricing?

I'm studying the pricing of a Double-Barrier binary option on the price of $S$. By this I mean an option that pays $X$ at maturity $T$ if the lower ($H1$) or upper barriers ($H2$) are not hit during ...
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1answer
687 views

Tobin's Q calculation using Compustat

I am calculating tobin's Q every quarter using the CRSP/Compustat quarterly dataset. Unfortunately, there are many missing values for the variables used in the tobin's Q formula. for example, if ...
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1answer
60 views

Calculating a firm's cost of debt using bond issues

When a firm issues coupon bonds that are traded on the open market these bonds can trade at either a premium or discount during the lifetime of the bond. If, for instance, the bond trades at a ...
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86 views

Valuation of a company

Alpha Corp purchases Beta Sub. Alpha Corp finances the purchase price of € 100 million by raising € 50 million in debt and € 50 million in equity issued by Alpha. The debt is risk free and the ...
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1answer
206 views

Transaction multiple EV/LTM EBITDA

Envestnet acquired Yodlee in 2015. I need for this transaction the multiple EV (enterprise value) over last twelve months EBITDA. Can anybody help me with this? In the respective investor relations ...
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2answers
325 views

Floating rate note value approximation

I was hoping somebody can assist me with a query. Would it be a valid approach to revalue a frn with a discount margin from a comparable bond as par minus the difference between the quoted margin and ...
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1answer
3k views

Simple example of a funding valuation adjustment?

I'm still a bit confused on how a funding valuation adjustment is actually computed. So I'm looking for a simple example of a funding valuation adjustment, preferably a binomial or discrete model, ...
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1answer
283 views

Why does DCF discount at WACC and not risk-free rate?

Typically, we value 1 dollar at time $T$ at $e^{-Tr}$, where $r$ is the risk-free rate. Why wouldn't we do this for future cash flows in expected earnings for a corporation? Why do we discount at ...
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1answer
1k views

How can you determine the correct significance of the Shiller P/E regression?

The "Shiller P/E regression" refers to the regression of real stock market returns over the next 20 years on the Shiller P/E. When I did this OLS regression myself (based on the data from Prof. ...
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1answer
255 views

Discounted cash flows for bond valuation: exponential and simplified

At the moment I'm working with a banking system that calculates the discounted cash flows of a bond product in the following manner: It uses the 'regular', exponential way of calculating discounted ...
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3answers
157 views

Why aren't option pricing models more frequently used to value risky cash flows?

One way to think of the value of a risky firm is through expected measure theory. On the most basic level, the value of any asset is the convolution of the probability density function of its risky ...
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1k views

market value of a forward premium swaption

For a cash-settled vanilla interest rate swaption traded with forward premium paid in full at expiry of the option, what should the "mark-to-market" be during the life of the option? Should it be ...
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1answer
651 views

Wrong pricing of Asian Option

Issue short: I have values for Asian Options which I'm trying to replicate using a self-build vba calculator. The values I have to hit is from FinCAD and I'm using a discrete arithmetic average rate ...
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2answers
206 views

Do underlying assets have a no-arbitrage price?

Can it be shown that the Fundamental Theorem on Asset Pricing (FTAP) applies to underlying assets -- namely bonds, equities, and commodities? FTAP says that assets have no-arbitrage prices equal to ...
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Rigorous definition of the two values of a European call

Assume a BS model. For a European call option with strike $K$ and expiry $T$, its intrinsical value at time $t$ is defined to be $(S_t-K)_+$ i.e. the payoff we could get if we immediately exercised ...
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4k views

Forward and discount curves for cross currency swaps

I have a EUR-GBP cross currency swap, collateralised in GBP, each leg is paying 3m EURIBOR/LIBOR respectively. I know GBP leg can be modelled with 3m LIBOR forward curve and GBP OIS discount curve. ...