# Questions tagged [volatility]

A measure of the variation in price over time. Also a measure of the risk of a financial instrument.

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### GARCH(1,1) parameter estimation optimization method

In estimating a GARCH(1,1) model, $$\sigma_{t+1}^2 = \omega+\alpha \epsilon_t^2+\beta\sigma_t^2$$ Usually the parameter tuple $(\omega,\alpha,\beta)$ is estimated by the quasi-maximal likelihood. ...
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### Ito's lemma results in negative volatility processes

I struggle with the interpretation of a process I derive from Ito's Lemma. Let's say I have function f(S,t) which is twice differentiable wrt S. I thus can apply Ito's Lemma to get $df(S,t)$. So far ...
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### does anybody know a package for the estimation in python of multivariate garch model? [duplicate]

is there any package in python for the estimation of multivariate garch models? (bekk, dcc) i tried with the package mgarch but it provides only a few commands and wanted to know if there are some ...
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### Rebonatos's formula in C++

I'm trying to code in C++ Rebonato's formula for swaption volatilities  v_{\alpha,\beta}^2=\frac{1}{T_\alpha} \sum_{i,j=\alpha+1}^{\beta} \frac{w_i(0)w_j(0)F_i(0)F_j(0)}{S_{\alpha\beta}^2(0)}\rho_{i,...
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### Is scaling the standard deviations in the VaR formula (parametric) equivalent to scaling the VaR figure at the end?

I have come across people calculating parametric VaR who scaled the standard deviations by say square root of 10 to scale up to a 10 day horizon. Elsewhere I have seen textbooks suggesting that it is ...
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### How does trndbot generate buy/sell signals?

I was looking at trndbot and it's buy/sell signals are pretty good - what algorithm are they using to generate these signals? Although it maybe similar to bollinger bands, it algorithmically ...
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### Is there a HAR that deals with the leverage effect?

The EGARCH is a special GARCH model that treats the leverage effect of the volatility. The HARV does not make a distinction between negative and positive returns. Is there a special HARV that deals ...